Mountain GOD Worship: Yahweh, God of the Mountains.

Welcome to Part 2 of:
Yahweh: The Worshiping Of A Volcano Fire GOD Of War.

iceland-volcano-eruption

Post note:
10-21-2013
* This is a rough draft and is currently being edited.
* Fixed the broken link to the supporting scripture page
* Supporting scripture page is basically just a dump for scripture and evidence not used in this article series on Yahweh. Hence, what I didn’t think would be necessary or needed. So rather than needlessly flood this article with scripture, I made the dump page you can feel free to look at. (sorry I didn’t organize it)
* Added an academic source on the question of Yahweh’s origin (See first paragraph ” Jewish Quarterly review Volume 6 p.200″)
* I have reports of three  two broken links, I am now currently trying to find alternative links, or fix the broken links.
* Fixed the more information link on Professor Donald Redford. The edu. link has changed since he had left Oxford and became a Professor at Penn State University.

In the first Article we went over the evidence in establishing Yahweh as being associated with having the possible origins of a moon god that likely evolved into a Volcano GOD, or merged with mountain God worship to become a moon mountain god.  Though the origin of this god may not have always been a volcano god, it’s prudent to say Yahweh’s origins remain uncertain among scholars. We can for example see this debate in the Jewish Quarterly Review , Vol. 6, No. 1, July 1915. as noted on page 200.  This article including current archaeological evidence, and a supporting scripture page will hopefully shed some more light on the possible or likely origins of Yahweh.  Thus before reading this article, I would strongly recommend reading my first article and the linked supporting scripture and evidence page provided. What this article is, is an attempt to bring a deeper understanding of the first article in retrospect to the history of Mountain GOD worship in Mesopotamia. But be fore warned, this article isn’t going to be short as there is a lot of material to cover here. This has literally taken me a few months to put together, and have I tried my best to keep it short as possible with as much content in links and source references as I could. Also, I have left out a ton of information regarding the Qur’an concerning this subject as I am still reading the Qur’an. So there yet might be a another article, or just some commentary in the comments section. This is thus a summary of the literal mountain of knowledge out there on this subject.

However, I wrote this in a format in chapters to where you can read the  “King of The Hill” chapter, and the sixth chapter “Summit” without having to read the bulk of this article in the chapters concerning the Egyptian’s, Sumerians, Pagan roots, the Shasu, or the chapter on reaching the summit in order to still comprehend the point of this article. This is for those of you whom might not have the time to fully read this article. I also wrote this article in the context of how a lot of my faith in the biblical GOD declined as I climbed up the mountain of God.. Hence Chapter 1 is the peak of faith and the beginning of it’s descent while each chapter after symbolizes further decent from the mountain of faith while climbing up a mountain of knowledge concerning this Mountain of God. And as you read, I attempt to bring you along in this journey as your guide, and to share with you what I have learned.


Key:

  Anything in blue text is a Link

Chapter Index:

* King of The Hill
* The Egyptians and Sumerians
* Pagan roots & the Shasu
* Overview
* reaching for the summit
* The Summit

* Conclusion

Chapter 1
– KING OF THE HILL –

     I remember as a child playing “King of the hill”, and how when I ever laid a successful sack of the mighty mountain that I would be King of all the realms before me. Truly the most high is crowned the overlord of the kingdoms, and I would seek my wrath should my position ever had been challenged. It’s a game I am sure many of us remember, but I wonder how many actually understand how true this game is to the history of religion in ancient Mesopotamia. And how true it is to the wars where territories were associated with particular Mountain GOD’s, all fighting to be King of the hill. This region of the world of mountain gods are often depicted with a father, a chief of the mountains that has often been referred to as “God of the Mountains”, a crowned King and father of the gods in ancient Mesopotamian history that has shaped Godly figures such as El, El Elyon, El Shaddia, Baal, Zeus, Yahweh, and many other mountain god deities throughout ancient times. Mountains were given spirits, and were believed to be where GOD’s of these mountains dwell. Mountains given spirits of fire, wind, storm, Earthquake, creation, and fertility.  And so our siege of these high Mountain walls will begin here at the foot of the mountain of God where we will take our first step up the climbing ladder of understanding, and in higher enlightenment of these mountain spirits. And we begin it here with knowledge, and the Encyclopedia Britannica as our foundation and base camp to our journey:

Encyclopedia Britannica:

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/406588/nature-worship/38281/MountainsMountains

Especially prominent mountains are favourite places for cults of high places, particularly when they are isolated as island mountains, mountains with snowcaps, or uninhabited high mountain ranges. The psychological roots of the cults of high places lie in the belief that mountains are close to the sky (as heavenly ladders), that clouds surrounding the mountaintops are givers of rain, and that mountains with volcanoes form approaches to the fiery insides of the earth.

Mountains, therefore, serve as the abodes of the gods, as the centres of the dead who live underground, as burial places, for rainmakers (medicine men), and as places of oracles for soothsayers. In cosmogenic (origin of the world) myths, mountains are the first land to emerge from the primeval water. They frequently become the cosmic mountain (i.e., the world conceived as a mountain) that is symbolically represented by a small hill on which a king stands at the inauguration. Pilgrimages to mountain altars or shrines are favorite practices of cults of high places.

The larger mountain ranges and canyons between volcanic mountains—especially in Eurasia from the Pyrenees to the Alps, the Carpathian Mountains, the Caucasus Mountains, the Himalayas, the mountainous areas of northern China, Korea, and Japan, and the mountainous areas of North and South America (the Rocky Mountains, the Andes)—are most often centres of cults of high places. Elevations of the East African Rift Valley (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda), volcanic islands of the Pacific Ocean (e.g., Hawaii), and the mountains of the Indian Deccan have also served as centres of the cults of high places.

In early civilizations the cults of high places were closely combined with those of the earth; e.g., Mount Olympus in Greece, the mountains of Enlil or of the “Mountain Mother,” Cybele, in western Asia, and the Meru mountain in India were believed to bring heaven and earth into a close relationship and were often viewed as the middle pillar of the world pillars upholding the sky

Throughout this article it will be important to note the highlighted themes above as these beliefs go all the way back to prehistoric religions, cults, and oral traditions found in such religions as the Egyptians and the Sumerians. These two specific religions had the greatest amount of influence in the development of mountain god worship and religion in Mesopotamia. This includes the Bible, and the Abrahamic religions of today. In the first segment we will cover the Egyptians, and Sumerians while in the next segment we will cover the Pagan roots and the Shasu before going into the last segment in which we overview how the worship of Yahweh deals with mountain god worship typical of what we find in Mesopotamia.  Thus lets proceed to climb this mountain here and move on to discussing the Egyptian and Sumerian influences on the development of modern religion..:

Chapter 2
– THE EGYPTIANS AND SUMERIANS-


THE EGYPTIANS:

With the Egyptians, In the “Book of the Dead”,  [1, p. cxvii], Osiris became the recognized god of the sepulchral chamber, and eventually presided over the whole of the “funeral Mountain”. Thus if you are curious where the concept of the tombstone came from, it may have come from the Egyptians to which is known as the Funerary stela. The Funerary stela attested to ancient the Egyptians’ sense of the continuity of life through death and beyond. The Egyptians placed a Funerary stela in tombs to ensure the availability of the necessities that a person’s ka, or soul, would use in the afterlife.  So with that in mind, lets go over the book of the dead to address Anubis in concerning the rituals and beliefs surrounding the funerary mountain of God, and as a starting point for understanding mountain god worship:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anubis

“Anubis is the Greek name for a jackal-headed god associated with mummification and the afterlife in Egyptian mythology. In the ancient Egyptian language, Anubis is known as Inpu, (variously spelled Anupu, Wip, Ienpw etc.). The oldest known mention of Anubis is in the Old Kingdom pyramid texts, where he is associated with the burial of the king.[1]

Anubis takes various titles in connection with his funerary role, such as He who is upon his mountain, which underscores his importance as a protector of the deceased and their tombs, and the title He who is in the place of embalming, associating him with the process of mummification.[1] Like many ancient Egyptian deities, Anubis assumes different roles in various contexts, and no public procession in Egypt would be conducted without an Anubis to march at the head.”

The Pyramid itself is the representation of Osiris, and that of a holy cosmic mountain. A mountain to which is of the Legend of Osiris:  the body of Osiris inside the Pillar in the House of the King as noted here:

1. Asar-Neb-Djedu; “Osiris – Lord of Djedu“, and Asar-em-Het-Djedet; “Osiris in the House of the Djed pillar”

2.”This King is Osiris,  this pyramid of the King is Osiris,  this construction of his is Osiris…”

3.”Let thine heart, O Osiris, who art in the Mountain of Amentet, be content, for thy son Horus is stablished upon thy throne”

Pyramid Texts, Utterance 600 , and  http://www.whiterosesgarden.com/deities/DTY_Egyptian/EGYT_hymn_to_osiris.htm

And this Mountain of the underworld is commanded by Osiris.  Set Amentet  means ‘the mountain of the underworld,’ a common name for the cemeteries were in the mountains or desert on the western bank of the Nile. This mountain was likely a volcano giving the following abstract:

Thy throne hath descended unto thy son Horus, and the god Tem hath decreed that thy course shall be among the holy princes. In truth he shall rule from thy throne, and he shall be heir to the throne of the Dweller in the fiery Lake [Neserser]. In truth it hath been decreed that in me he shall see his likeness, and that my face shall look upon the face of the Lord Tem. How long then have I to live? It is decreed that thou shalt live for millions of years, a life of millions of years. Let it be granted to me to pass on to the holy princes, for indeed, I have done away all the evil which I committed, from the time when this earth came into being from Nu, when it sprang from the watery abyss even as it was in the days of old. I am Fate and Osiris, I have made my transformations into the likeness of divers serpents. Man knoweth not, and the gods cannot behold the two-fold beauty which I have made for Osiris, the greatest of the gods. I have given unto him the region of the dead. And, verily, his son Horus is seated upon the throne of the Dweller in the fiery Lake [of Neserser], as his heir. I have made him to have his throne in the Boat of Millions of Years. Horus is stablished upon his throne [among his] kinsmen, and he hath all that is with him. Verily, the Soul of Set, which is greater than all the gods, hath departed. Let it be granted to me to bind his soul in fetter in the Boat of the God, when I please, and let him hold the Body of the God in fear. O my father Osiris, thou hast done for me that which thy father Ra did for thee. Let me abide upon the earth permanently.

Fiery lake of Neserser is quite intriguing to the likelihood of being associated with volcanic activity to which is further supported by Sir E.A. Wallis to whom has this nice quoted reference regarding this lake of fire:

Thou child who growest rapidly, with gracious form, who restest in thine eye. Thou wakest up men who are asleep on their beds, and the reptiles in their nests. Thy boat saileth on the fiery Lake Neserser, and thou traversest the upper sky by means of the winds thereof. The flame of this serpent that is over the door of thy house burneth him up.

Sir E. A. Wallis (Ernest Alfred Wallis) Budge – The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians
http://wordincontext.com/en/neserser

Thus we can see that Volcano, or mountain god worship can stretch pretty far back,  back far enough to where it is even found in the Egyptian creation story, and referenced to the“Island of fire” (Utt. 173-4) from which land rises from the sea and forms the world and separates the waters below from the waters above, a pyramid-shaped mound called the benben, which was the first thing to emerge from the waters:
 

Benben or Ben-ben, in Egyptian mythology, specifically in the Heliopolitan tradition, was the mound that arose from the primordial waters, Nu, and on which the creator god Atum settled. In the Pyramid Texts, e.g. Utterances 587 and 600, Atum himself is at times referred to as “mound”. It was said to have turned into a small pyramid, located in Annu, which was the place Atum was said to dwell within. Other cities developed their own myths of the primeval mound. At Memphis the god Tatenen, an earth god and the origin of all things in the shape of food and viands, divine offers, all good things was the personification of the primeval mound.

And the most interesting part about the Pyramids is that the term  Pyramid has different meanings depending on the source you cite. For example, The Prefix “Pyr” Meaning “Fire” And A-Mid Meaning “Surrounded By, In The Middle Of.”.. Hence, “Fire in the Middle”. However, The Ancient Egyptian Term For Pyramid Is “Mer” to which translates as “Beloved”. In Greek it’s “Wheat Cake” presumably because their structure reminded them of their pointy tops.. However, referencing Benben once again, we can cite William Lauritzen regarding this primal fire Island mound here:

William Lauritzen proposes the elegant idea that volcanic activity inspired the Benben of Egyptian creation mythology

The Primordial Mountain theme was universal. The architecture of other very ancient cultures represented the Primordial Mountain design theme. Included are the ziggurats of Babylon, the burial mounds of China, the stupas of India and many other examples.(1) In the creation mythology of India, 33 deities lived on the Primordial Mountain. The Primordial Mountain theme is so ancient and widespread that it begs an exploration of the Egyptian Benben from a broad historical perspective.(3) In other words, because the god-on-the-mountain theme may appear outside of Egypt earlier than our knowledge of it within Egypt, it is logical to seek earlier examples and examine evidence of cross-culturization.

1. Lyle, E. (ed.), Sacred Architecture in the Traditions of India, China, Judaism, and Islam, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh (1992), 220 p; Scully, V. J., The Earth, the Temple, and the Gods; Greek Sacred Architecture, Yale University Press, New Haven (1962), 257 p.

2. 3. For more on the Primordial Mountain theme, see Morris, M., The Egyptian Pyramid Mystery Is Solved!: http://www.margaretmorrisbooks.com

William even has a nice little video:

Secrets About Religion and Mythology You Were Never Told

And as anyone can attest, the Pyramids represent a sacred mountain. We can also note that the columns supporting the roofs of temples are symbolizing mountains seen by some scholars as pillars upholding they sky, hence the hieroglyphic writing of the word “pillar”. This attesting to the encyclopedia Britannica citation provided as our foundation above.  The appearance of the four granite layers situated above the ceiling of the King’s chamber are also reminiscent of the four ‘blades’ that form the top section of the Djed pillar, the crown of Osiris-Djed (pictured here), and demonstrated by volcanic activity (pictured here).   This symbolism is not only found in Egyptian mythology, but in Exodus as well while the 12 tribes were at their sacred Mountain of GOD:
 

Exodus 24:4 So Moses wrote down all the words of the LORD. He got up early in the morning and built an altar with twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel at the base of the mountain.

We also find this not just in Exodus, but in Jobs 26:11:

11The pillars of the heavens quake, aghast at his rebuke.

Barnes’ Notes on the Bible

The pillars of Heaven tremble – That is, the mountains, which seem to bear up the heavens. So, among the ancients. Mount Atlas was represented as one of the pillars of heaven. Virgil speaks of “Atlas whose brawny back supports the skies.” And Hesiod, ver. 785, advances the same notion:

Essentially the Egyptians played a very large role in the evolution of Mountain GOD worship in regards to many Mesopotamian Mountain GODS.  So what about the Sumerians? What have they contributed to the evolution and influence on Mountain GOD worship? Well lets take a steep climb over that ledge and see what we find:


THE SUMERIANS:

Here in the Sumerian religion and mythology we have  Enlil, with An and Enki, represent the supreme Mesopotamian deities, or trinity: (Nötscher 1938: 382-387).

We can also see how Enlil’s prominence and power can be seen in his titles and epithets as “The Great Mountain” (ETCSL 1.1.3: 3), and as the “King of all the lands” (Wang_2011: 134), “Father of the gods”, (The death of Gilgameš, ETCSL 1.8.13: 12).  Moreover, Enlil’s position as a supreme deity, The Great Mountain and the Father of the GODs was abstracted to the concept of enlilūtu, “Enlilship”, a term applied to others, both human and heavenly, who held paramount authority, or were seen as Kings. Enlil’s is based on his power and authority, and as such he can create and destroy. This mythology can easily be seen in the Canaanite Pantheon, and in modern Christianity and the Abrahamic religions. Enlil is described as the “decreer of fates” (A praise poem of Šulgi (2094-2047 BCE), ETCSL 2.4.2.24: 72), and in the Akkadian Anzu myth Enlil holds the tablet of destinies, the possessor of which commands the world (Foster 2005: 555-578) in which a priest or prophet climbs the holy mountain to receive and bring down to his people as the law of the lord. This again can be found in where Moses climbs Mt Sinai to receive the 10 commandments.  It is Enlil who grants kingship to the rulers of Mespotamia, e.g. on the Vase Inscription of Lugalzagesi, Enlil gave the nam-lugal-kalam-ma “kingship of the land” to Lugalzagesi (Wang 2011: 145 ).. Now I could go deep into the symbolism and history regarding crowns, and how crowning the king came about. But it’s essentially based on being the King of the Hill, and the one with Authority to which also denotes everlasting life.. Yes “LONG LIVE THE KING” is quite a popular phrase as such Authority is to be obediently respected and obeyed without question.

However, more importantly, These Sumerians built pyramid shaped temples called ziggurats.  Ziggurats were also built by the Babylonians, Elamites, Akkadians, and Assyrians .  The Mesopotamian ziggurats were believed to be dwelling places for the gods. According to scholars, only priests were allowed on the ziggurat, or even in the rooms at the bases of these temples. This is very typical of Mountain GOD worship to which shaped many of the religions of the biblical era.  The main sanctuary of Enlil was the é-kur “Mountain house” at Nippur, in central southern Mesopotamia, and this temple is described in the Sumerian “Hymn to the é-kur” (ETCSL 4.80.4). This sanctuary dates at least to the Akkadian period (George 1993: 116). We can also see where this influences Pagan religions in an Old Babylonian temple to Enlil in Babylon (Klengel-Brandt 1997: 254), a ziggurat and temple quarter dedicated to Enlil at Dur-Kurigalzu in southern Mesopotamia. And that is not all as we have the following:

Iddin-Dagan (1974-1954 BCE) and Išme-Dagan (1953-1935 BCE), kings of Isin, frequently exhalt Enlil as the “principal deity” (ETCSL 2.5.4.01: 46>), and as their father (ETCSL 2.5.4.02: 29ETCSL 2.5.4.02). Moreover, his cult at Nippur receives offerings throughout the Isin-Larsa period (Sigrist 1980).

The very same concepts we find in the Worship of Yahweh as also note here to which includes the Father and King as their Shepard:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ekur

It is also known as Duranki and one of its structures is known as the Kiur, or “great place”.[2]Enamtila has also been suggested by Piotr Michalowski to be a part of the Ekur.[3] A hymn to (mythology) Nanna illustrates the close relationship between temples, houses and mountains. “In your house on high, in your beloved house, I will come to live, O Nanna, up above in your cedar perfumed mountain“. This was carried-on into later tradition in the Bible by the prophetMicah who envisions “the mountain of the temple of Yahweh“.[4]

The word can also refer to the chapel of Enlil in the temple of Ninimma at Nippur. It is also mentioned in the Inscription of Gaddas as a temple of Enlil built “outside Babylon”, possibly referring to the Enamtila in west Babylon.[6] It is used as part of such Sumerian phrases as e-kur-igi-gal; “House, Mountain Endowed with Sight”, e-kur-igi-bar-ra; “House, Mountain which Sees”, e-kur-mah; “House, Exalted Mountain”, e-kur-mah; a temple of Ninazu, e-kur-me-sikil; “House, Mountain of Pure Mes (laws or judgement)” – a sanctuary of Ishtar, e-kur-nam-ti-la; “House, Mountain of Life”, e-kur-ni-zu; “House, Fearsome Mountain” – the sanctuary of Ninlil at hursag-kala-ma (likely a later name of e-hursag-kalam-ma), etc.[6]

The Ekur was seen as a place of judgement and the place from which Enlil’s divine laws (see List ofmes) are issued. The ethics and moral values of the site are extolled in myths, which Samuel Noah Kramer suggested would have made it the most ethically-oriented in the entire ancient Near East. Its rituals are also described as: “banquets and feasts are celebrated from sunrise to sunset” with “festivals, overflowing with milk and cream, are alluring of plan and full of rejoicing”. The priests of the Ekur festivities are described with en being the high priest, lagar as his associate, mues the leader of incantations and prayers, and guda the priest responsible for decoration. Sacrifices and food offerings were brought by the king, described as “faithful shepherd” or “noble farmer”.[2]

^ Piotr Michalowski (1989). The lamentation over the destruction of Sumer and Ur. Eisenbrauns. pp. 81–. ISBN 978-0-931464-43-0. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
^ Thomas B. Dozeman (29 May 2009). Exodus. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 122–. ISBN 978-0-8028-2617-6. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
^ Dina Katz (June 1993). Gilgamesh and Akka. BRILL. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-90-72371-67-6. Retrieved 9 June 2011.

^ a b c A. R. George (1993). House most high: the temples of ancient Mesopotamia. Eisenbrauns. pp. 117–. ISBN 978-0-931464-80-5. Retrieved 5 June 2011.

And as we continue to play this game of King of the Hill, or GOD of the Mountains, we see Enlil get replaced by The rise of Marduk.  This new King is said to have been chosen by Enlil (Van de Mieroop 2005: 82). And this eventually leads us to the Creation Epic, Enuma Eliš, where Marduk who confronts and then defeats the enemy Tiamat. In his defeating of Tiamat, he becomes the head of the pantheon. As in King of the hill.. Marduk was god of the Mountain.  He is often depicted on three rocks representing a mountain ( Middle of the seal with raised hand).

Babylon was called “City of the Day Sun”, Borsippa bore the title of “City of the Night Sun”. Borsippa lost this quite independent status, however, after it had been conquered, and, in times of the cult of Marduk, was regarded as “Crown and City of the Father of Nabu” who was in custody of the “City of His Son”.

On the sixth day of Akitu, the festival of Spring Equinox, a statue of Nabu was sent to Babylon via the channel that connected the two cities. At this time, the city is in a high state of agitation due to Marduk’s imprisonment in the “mountain” of the underworld. There were a number of mock battles fought to try to secure his release. Marduk’s actual release, however, was accomplished either the sixth or the seventh day by his son Nabu, as he assumes the role of the goddess Inanna/Ishtar when she found Marduk in ‘the mountain’. Through her intervention originally, and Nabu’s in subsequent years, Marduk was miraculously restored and emerged from the underworld.

This leaves us to Wonder how Yahweh, the god of Judah came to be the god of the Mountains. There is however a Video that might help us understand from this point regarding Marduk, and where Yahweh ends up becoming the King of the Hill to which hints at the likely fact that Yahweh became King of the hill through the typical process of usurping other gods, beliefs, cultures, oral traditions, and rituals.. :

The History of GOD: VIDEO

In this video we learn that the God he thinks we are supposed to be worshiping is Ba’al. Well, he’s close, however he didn’t seem to dig deep enough to realize that Ba’al was likely usurped by the Yahwists, and that Ba’al is associated to the Sumerian moon God “Sin”.. And as you can references back to my first article, you can go back and overview the section where I discussed Yahweh’s Egyptian and Sumerian origins in dealing with moon GOD worship, and how through the process of usurping Yahweh had become a “Moon Mountain GOD”.  This to which is quite expected giving the Egyptian and Sumerian influences discussed in the first segment of this article. What this gives us, is a deeper understanding of the Pagan roots to which we will further explore in our next segment here regarding the Pagan and Shasu roots: Thus in the following segment we will touch a bit more into some of the Pagan roots, the usurping of, and more importantly in regards to the Shasu to which I briefly mentioned in my first article, and promised I would discuss in this article.

Chapter 3
– PAGAN ROOTS, THE USURPING OF, AND THE SHASU –


Pagan roots and the Usurping of:

 Welcome to our next segment, and if you made it this far, you probably can’t wait to touch a bit more into some of the Pagan roots, the usurping of, and more importantly more in regards to the Shasu to which I briefly mentioned in my first article, and promised I would discuss in this article. So without further delay, we can see from what we learned so far, and by the evidence that there is a strong relation to Yahweh and the pagan roots of all the other previously worshiped Gods. This historical evolution of the Hebrew GOD associated with various names such as Yahweh, Yaw, Yah, Ya, Yahu, El, Elohim or Ehyeh asher Ehyeh ( “I AM that I AM” Hebrew: Hayah  Ex 3:14) over a period of 3,000 years derive from polytheistic Pagan history and preexisting Pagan cultures, oral traditions, and religions.. Thus we have an understanding that Yahweh is a fusion of various earlier gods and goddesses. It is seen as having absorbed their functions, epithets and achievements. Thus with the rise and fall of various polities in Mesopotamia, the earlier gods traditionally came to have their powers usurped by the latest conqueror. Furthermore, a relevant example was Babylon upon coming to power creating the Enuma Elish creation story to which enumerates how, Marduk the son of Ea, has absorbed and taken over the power and attributes of the preexisting GODS. They become aspects of Marduk’s Persona. And then Assyria arose and conquered Babylon, and here we see The Assyrians “appropriated” the Enuma Elish and made Ashur (assur) the supreme god, and Marduk joined the fate of the earlier GOD’s and was assimilated as merely a persona of Ashur. More interesting is the Usurping of the GOD Ashur into the story of Noah and how the “Shin” to which is a symbol of El Shaddai, the Amorite deity to which was the GOD of Abraham:
 

Ashur (אַשּוּר; often also transliterated as Asshur to reflect the pointing of Hebrew letter ‘ש‘ (Shin) in the Masoretic text, which doubles the ‘ש’), was the second son of Shem, the son of Noah.

Thus as the political fortunes of Israel grew,  and when Israel conquered  the Canaanites, their gods’ and goddesses’ powers, epithets and feats were ascribed to Yahweh and the Yahwists religion.. And at this time, Yahweh being made GOD of Judah, was not yet made the one and only GOD. This didn’t happen until they completely demonized and usurped the Canaanite Pantheon to where Yahweh is seen as taking over El, and El Elyon as GOD of the Mountains.. This along with El’s wife Asherah giving the archeological evidence here:

* http://www.scribd.com/doc/36144940/Asherah-Consort-of-Yahweh-New-Evidence-From-Kuntillet-Ajrud
* http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1357073?uid=3739696&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21101168053907

Abstract:

Blessed be Uriyahu by Yahweh.
For from his enemies by his Asherah he has saved him.

In fact, the Israelites were still very much polytheistic here, and they still adored Asherah as the Mother of Heaven, or the consort of El, El Elyon, or Yahweh. It wasn’t until around 600 BCE did we have Monotheism start taking root by strict Yahwists and reformists, and where Ahserah was seemingly edited out of the bible as Yahweh’s consort as one of the spoils of war. It is here where Yahwism became monotheistic and considered all other GODs as false idols to which included Asherah. Professor Bill Dever, discusses archaeological evidence for Asherah as the consort of Yahweh:

Asherah was, of course, finally driven underground by the reformist parties that :edited the Hebrew Bible. In its final form she is written out of the text. Hence, she :disappeared and all her cult imagery with her when Jewish monotheism at last :triumphed in the period after the Israelites returned from the Babylonian exile. :But Asherah was once alive and well; modern archaeology has in fact resurrected :her. Her “houses,” now vacant, were once occupied. Here she was “at home” for :many of the masses in ancient Israel.

We can also reference The Early History of God Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel, by Mark S. Smith in where he explains the history of Asherah as well as how the name Asherah eventually morphed into a generic term essentially meaning “post,” or “idol” that was to be worshiped toward a specific god.

However, In the oracles, the same god is referred to as El, Elyon and Shaddai. Therefore, the longer forms of El Elyon and El Shaddai are authentic titles for the same deity to some theologians. It remains a question as to where each particular title may have been preferred they say, and that this may suggest that the other two titles of El and Shaddai were favored by other groups according to some apologists. However, by going over the evidence in these two articles, we can clear see that’s not the case.  I’ve even seen the argument that Jacob’s experiences at Bethel, Penuel and the altar Jacob called “El elohe yisra’el” all suggest that the Aramean migrants addressed their god simply as “El.” Both Shaddai and Elyon are additional primary names given to him by the cult. However, El was actually the head of the Canaanite Pantheon, and places like Bethel and Israel are in reference to this GOD specifically. These are family structured Pantheons, and they would not use “EL” in the generic context unless they were trying to usurp “EL”, or equate their GOD’s to “EL” as we find with the Amorites “El Shaddai”, and the Yahwists equating EL with Yahweh.

Thus in doing so, this would also make Yahweh confused to be just another name for El Elyon and EL to many of the people in that Era. This is how usurping works, and is more likely the result of the Yahwist cult usurping them into the persona of Yahweh as seen occurring in Exodus to where Yahweh is declared GOD of Judah, and noted here regarding a deity known to be associated with the Shasu of YHW.. Exodus seems to be where Yahweh comes into the Canaan Pantheon and takes the Egyptian Moon GOD’s Yah and the Sumerian moon god Sin over, combines them, and then equates them to being the “God of the mountains”, or “Chief of the mountains”.. This volcano GOD is interesting because Yahweh is clearly, and entirely of Pagan origin.. Yahweh didn’t have vowels to which was later added. YHWH, vocalised as “Yahweh” or “Yahveh,” and in its abbreviated form “Yah”. Prof. L.A. Waddell, talks about the source of “Yah”: or Yahweh of the Hebrews, and the Jove of the Romans here:

IA, or Yah was ancient Sumerian for the Deity of the Life-Bestowing Deep Waters, and was introduced to Upper Mesopotamia in around 3300 B.C.

Later Akkadians, Babylonians, Hittites and others knew IA or EA, as the God of Wisdom. IA is also directly linked to EL the ‘Most High of the Phoenicians. Recall that in the Hebrew Scriptures the Almighty God is named “Yahweh Elohim”.

The late Dr. John Allegro, in his fascinating book The Chosen People, shows that the sacred name, as well as the names of the patriarchal heroes of the Scriptures, are non-Semitic and “go back to the earliest known civilisation of the Near East, indeed of the world.

And as you can see, it really goes all the way back to the Sumerians, and even the Egyptians.. However, I couldn’t find any resources concerning Sumerians worshiping a deity “Yah”, and Waddell’s theories have been considered controversial.. So I don’t put much stake into his claims, and it makes you wonder what the Sumerians were doing with the Egyptian moon GOD Ia, or “Yah”.  Hence we are running full circle here to where I suspect Waddell has confused the Egyptian Moon GOD to be that of Sumerian origin. If true, I would then suspect that the Sumerians borrowed or had usurped the Egyptian Moon God into the personal of EA. But again I can find no evidence of this so far.. What I did find evidence for is that Yahwist likely usurped EA into the Persona of Yahweh, and this might be where Waddell had thought Yah was EA:

http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/enki/

Ea is the creator and protector of humanity in the Babylonian flood myth Atra-hasīs and the Epic of Gilgameš. He hatched a plan to create humans out of clay so that they could perform work for the gods. But the supreme god Enlil attempted to destroy Ea’s newly created humans with a devastating flood, because their never-ending noise prevented him from sleeping. But clever Ea foresaw Enlil’s plan; he instructed a sage TT  named Atrahasis to build an ark so that humanity could escape the destruction.

In the myth Adapa and the South Wind, Ea helps humanity keep the gift of magic and incantations by preventing Adapa from becoming immortal (Foster 2005: 525-530; Izre’el 2001; Michalowski 1980).

This show how much the Sumerians influenced the writing of the bible’s creation story of Genesis to which includes the creation of man from clay, and the destruction of catastrophic flood.. We see in reading Genesis how El Shaddai usurps EA and Enlil’s creation story.. And in Exodus we see where Yahwists usurps them all to which includes EL, EL Elyon, and El Shaddai by equating them all to Yahweh in Exodus 6:2-3.  However!,  the most interesting thing is concerning the Sanskrit meaning of Yahweh or “Yahaveh” to which Waddell points out, and to which I could find further references to.  This gives us an interesting perspective on Yahweh in regards to Mountain GOD worship, to which is the focus of this article, and how Yahweh being described as a Volcano GOD. One that is  ever flowing and creating..:

[Cognate of Sanskrit for “Ever-Flowing”?]

Abstract:

Early in the Bible God is referred to as El, a common Semitic name for God, and the plural Elohim. Elsewhere El Elion, “Most High God,” seems to confirm the existence of a pantheon of lesser gods. But by far the most common name used is Yahveh, a simplified pronunciation of the Hebrew consonants Yod Hay Vav Hay (YHVH), which are not to be spoken by pious Jews except in the sanctuary. They may substitute Adonai, “My Lord,” or Elohim. The four consonants are also known by the Greek term Tetragrammaton and the Hebrew Shem ha-Meforash (shortened to Hashem, “The Name,” and said in lieu of YHVH). A modern scholar, Merlin Stone, has pointed out the close relation of the name to the Sanskrit word yahveh, “everflowing,” which seems like a fair description of the fire and smoke that continually emit from Mt. Sinai when the Lord is present there. During the 16th century, the name Yahveh was distorted by Christian readers of the Bible into Jehovah. But even Yahveh is just an approximation of how the four sacred syllables are to be pronounced.

And:

“That this divine name was well-known to the Heathen there can be no doubt,” states Parkhurst’s Hebrew Lexicon. Traces of the name Yah have been found in inscriptions dating from 2,800 B.C., and in others dating from about 2,100 B.C. Yahweh is also closely related to the old Sanskrit word Yahveh, meaning ‘ever flowing’.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/99250636/Bible-Myths-and-Their-Parallels-in-Other-Religions-Being-a-Comparison-of-the-Old-and-New-Testament-Myths-and-Miracles-With-Those-of-Heathen-Nations-o

This is quite a rugged mountain trail of seemingly ever flowing fire we are climbing up here, and I can see why I would say that most Christians haven’t bothered to read their bibles, or do any real research into the history roots of their religion. It seems to be a dangerous and treacherous climb for one’s faith as it could slip and fall as the path narrows, and the ledges to the lakes of fire below become the fear that keeps them from going any further.. But for those of us who seek a thrill of knowledge unafraid, our path’s seem to widen despite how narrow the path to truth becomes. Thus giving us an evermore firm footing and grip on the truth, the goal, and the summit of our journey. It’s like attempting to scale Mount Everest, and reach the summit so few have seen.. And if you are truly a free thinker,  I would ask why not scale this mountain and meet the truth face to face? I dare say a vulcanologist risks their own life in the endeavor to further our understanding of this GOD of the Mountains.  After all, I did promise to talk about the Shasu didn’t I? I will even fill you in on the tribal meeting we had missed by a few thousand years, so lets push on up this molten mountain of wisdom and see who the Shasu are, and what they have to say: 


The Shasu:

Well to begin here, Yahweh seems to be especially worship amongst the Midianite tribes, and tribal regions. Or more specifically, those to whom are associated amd referred to by the Egyptians as the Shasu.. And among them are the Shasu of YHW.  the hieroglyph text corresponds to the Hebrew tetragrammaton YHWH, and antedates the hitherto occurrence of Yahweh on the Moabite Stone  by over five hundred years. See: “Astour (1979), p. 18” . The Egyptians referred  the Shasu of YHW as also the land of Yahweh. Some scholars even suggest that it is very likely that the Egyptians of the New Kingdom Period classified all of the ancient Edomites, Ammonites, Moabites, Amalekites, Midianites, Kenites, Hapiru, and Israelites as Shasu. Many of which were considered Enemies of Egypt. But the Shasu of YHW is of particular interest to this article as we can see below:

The ‘Land of the Shasu’ in the mountainous districts of Se’ir east of the Araba [the valley south of the Dead Sea] has an interesting consequence for one name in the mentioned lists from Soleb [northern Sudan] and Amarah [south of Cairo] — ‘Yhw (in) the land of the Shasu.’ For half a century it has been generally admitted that we have here the tetragrammaton, the name of the Israelite god, ‘Yahweh’; and if this be the case, as it undoubtedly is, the passage constitutes a most precious indication of the whereabouts during the late fifteenth century B.C. of an enclave revering this god.

And while it would be wrong to jump to the conclusion that ‘Israel’ as known from the period of the Judges or the early monarchy was already in existence in Edom at this time, one cannot help but recall the numerous passages in later Biblical tradition that depict Yahweh ‘coming froth from Se’ir’ and originating in Edom. The only reasonably conclusion is that one major component in the later amalgam that constituted Israel, and the one with whom the worship of Yahweh originated, must be looked for among the Shasu of Edom already at the end of the fifteenth century B.C.

Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times, by Donald B. Redford:

  • he was the Editor-in-chief of the The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt,
  • information about him can be found here, as he is now Professor at Penn State University in the Department of “Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies and History”

He also is up there with Dr. Stephen C. Meyers to whom gives us a time period of Exodus to around 1552 BC – 1570. Though the writing of Exodus may be as late as 1500 BC.  This Time period is important to establishing that Yahweh  as likely a Volcano GOD.  Exodus is written in the same time period as the Eruption of Mount Thera, and possibly associated to other eruptions in the region. Exodus is seen here as being written in post event format regarding the Mount Thera Eruption, as well as the establishment of Yahweh as the GOD of Judah, GOD most high, and as GOD of the Mountains:

Biblical Archaeology: The Date of the Exodus According to Ancient Writers.

References to the Shasu are found on pages 153, 203, 228f, 269-273, 275, 277-280, 318, 365, and 444, along with tons of references to other peer-reviewed archaeology.

And giving the Shasu, this really brings us to the subject of the tirbal league at Sinai by Moshe Winfield:

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/64496/biblical-literature/73230/The-tribal-league
http://hyksos.org/tiki-read_article.php?articleId=7

Abstract:

The Tribal League at Sinai

By: MOSHE WEINFELD
Professor Emeritus of Bible at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and recipient of the 1994 Israel Prize for Bible.

Sinai/Horeb (1) is named hr h’lhym (“the mountain of God”) even before the divine call to Moses at the burning bush (Exod 3: 1) and prior to the revelation to the people of Israel (Exod 4: 27; 18: 5). It has therefore been rightly observed (2) that this mountain was venerated long before Moses, as may be learned also from the fact that Jethro, the Midianite/Qenite priest, comes to the “mountain of God” (Exod 18:5) in order to sacrifice and partake of the holy meal “in the presence of God” (v 12). The story about this sacrificial meal has no connection with the Sinaitic theophany, which dominates Exodus 19-24, (3) and therefore scholars have made the suggestion that the sacrificial ceremony in Exod 18: 12 reflects some kind of covenant between the Midianites/Qenites and the Israelites (4) (see below).

Recently Z. Weisman (5) analyzed the passages where hr h’lhym (“the mount of God”) appears and he reached the conclusion that “the mount of God” should be seen as an extraterritorial holy site that served various tribes and ethnic groups in the area. Indeed Jethro is said to have gone to the desert (‘l hmbdr) where Moses was encamped at “the mount of God” (Exod 18:5) and after meeting Moses and advising him about the administration of justice (v 13-26), returned to his own land (v 27; cf. Num 10:30). Similarly, whenever the Israelites express their wish to go and worship their god, they say that they want to go a distance of three days into the wilderness to sacrifice (Exod 3: 18; 5:3; 8:23), which points to a place far from the settled region. That the site was venerated by the nomadic tribes in the area may also be learned from the fact that the “mountain of Elohim” is associated with the divine epithet, “the god of the ‘lbrim” (Exod 3: 18; 5:3). (6) Without committing ourselves to the identification of ‘Ibrim with the Habiru, (7) it is nevertheless clear that the term ‘lbrim refers to a population of the pre-Mosaic period with features characteristic of the ‘Apiru/Habiru, people who do not have a stable territorial basis and are of low social status (slaves, hired workers, or hired soldiers). Moreover, there is a significance in the fact that the verb qrh used for revelation in connection with the God of the ‘lbrim in the mountain of Elohim

The question may be raised: How was this extraterritorial “mount of God” turned into the mount of the worshipers of Yahweh? For this we have new evidence from Egypt. In the geographical lists of Amenhotep III (1402-1364 B.C.E.) found in the temple of Amon at Soleb in Nubia (Sudan), we find the entry t’ s’ sw’ yhw’, which is to be rendered “the land of Shasu of Yhwh,” meaning “the land of the nomad (tribes) of Yhwh.” (8) “Yhwh” indicates here the name of the region where the deity was worshiped, or it may indicate the name of the tribes that call themselves after this deity. (9) In fact, the holy place where Jethro met Moses according to Num 10:33 is called “the mount of YHWH” and it seems that this was later changed by the Elohistic tradition into har ha ‘Elohim (” the mount of God”) (see above). In other Egyptian topographical lists “the land of Yahweh” comes close to the other toponyms known to us from Sinai and southern Palestine associated with Midianites and Qenites, such as Seir, Laban, Samati (or Sama), Reuel, and Punon. Thus, in the list of Ramses II from Amara-West in Nubia, which was copied from Amenhotep lII’s temple at Soleb. (10) we find next to t’ s’ sw’ yhw’ also the land of the Sasu of Seir (s’rr) and of Laban (rbn). Seir and Laban in the Egyptian sources should not be sought in Edom of Transjordan, as was done by some scholars, (11) because the mountain of Seir denotes also the range of mountains to the west of Arabah and to the south of the Dead Sea.

Abstract 2:

In Psalm 68 we find the same typology. God Comes forth (ys’) and marches (s’d) before his people in the wilderness (v 8), and besides Sinai (v 9) we find there “mount of God,” “mount of Bashan,” and other mounts (gabnunnim). As in Iudg 5 :4-5, the whole universe trembles before the God of Israel.

In all of these instances there is no trace of Sinaitic revelation of the type attested in Exodus 19-24. The prevailing picture is that of God setting out from his holy abode (21) (on the mountain) to save his people from their enemies on their march to the conquest, (22) not the conventional notion of God descending upon the mountain to give law. The place from which the deity sets out is not a single hallowed place (Sinai/ Horeb), as in later literature, but various places dispersed all over the Sinaitic peninsula and the Negeb: Paran in the south of Sinai, Edom in the south of Palestine, Midian, and Kushan. It seems that there were several holy mounts in this area, which served the Nomads who venerated Yahweh. (23)

Now you can feel free to read the rest of Moshe Winfeld’s work, but the important part is that Yahweh isn’t just associated with one mountain. Yahweh is associated with likely any volcano, volcanic activity in the region, or places considered as places where the worshipers can go meet with this GOD. The other important part to note is that this is very classical of typical mountain GOD worship that goes all the way back to the Egyptians, Nubians, and the Sumerians. Furthermore, with Volcanic mountain GOD worship, it was and still is typical to bring burnt offerings to be offered to the volcano GOD as we can see this still taking place today in India:

Article Photo
Indonesian worshipers descend from the crater of Mount Bromo in East Java province on January 28, 2011. The worshipers gave offerings to the god of the mountain, praying for the safety of local people. (Aman Rahman/AFP/Getty Images)

So with this picture of mountainous pillar of smoke in mind, and more specifically the Britanica’s entry on mountain GOD worship, we can proceed to the highest pillar, the Most High and last steps up the ladder to the summit of this article to be enlightened on mountain GOD worship regarding this GOD of the Mountains we have come to know as Yahweh, King of the Hill!

Chapter 4
– OVERVIEW –

 

From this high up, it sometimes is quite rewarding to take a break and take in the awe inspiring view as you can see the lands all around, the snow capped peaks, and asses your progress as you look down in amazement of how far you had come on this difficult journey. So take a break, rest, and then comeback and assess your progress here in this overview.. Take as long as you need as there is no rush to the top! 🙂  Well now, I see you are back! Did you enjoy your view, and are you well rested? If so, feel free to get your gear ready and hiking boots back on and join me in a meeting to assess our progress.. :

Now as we know my friend, we had come a long way, and that I had written an article regarding Yahweh being a volcano GOD here:

Yahweh: The Worshiping Of A Volcano / Fire GOD Of War .

There We explored many facets in this article to which I recommend reviewing since it is now time to finish this, and make the final efforts to reach the summit of our long journey. And to reach this summit, and understand everything we will see once we get there, we must take a moment to review how this article “Mountain GOD Worship: Yahweh, God of the Mountains” relates to the main article “Yahweh: The Worshiping Of A Volcano / Fire GOD Of War”. Yes I know, the link seems tedious, but going back to the Encyclopedia Britanica’s entry regarding mountain GOD worship, we will need to in order to focus on these main things to which are covered here in this article, those not yet covered, and how they exist in and relate to Yahweh and the main article. And one of the Key notes we will see here, and from what we discussed above in regards to Yahweh’s origin’s likely stemming from the Shasu and the Egyptian moon God “Yah”, is that Yahweh was not the GOD of Abraham as noted in my first article in which addressed “El”, El Elyon, and El Shaddai. Thus it is important note that the Shin ” ש “, to which is the Hebrew alphabet letter for fire in Kabballah  as also the symbol and letter as the root name and symbol for Shaddai as the Shin ” ש “ is attested specifically as a name for the Akkadian deity Amarru:

Shaddai is a derivation of a Semitic stem that appears in the Akkadian shadû (“mountain”) and shaddā`û or shaddû`a (“mountain-dweller”), one of the names of Amurru.

  1. ^ The Targum from the Beginnings: “Tablet 1.” Retrieved on September 12, 2010
  • Bailey, L. R. (1968). “Israelite ’Ēl šadday and Amorite Bêl šadê“, Journal of Biblical Literature 87, 434–38.
  • Cross, Frank Moore (1973). Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, pp. 10, 57–58. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-09176-0.
  • Jordon, Michael. Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002
  • Ouellette, Jean (1969). “More on ’Ēl Šadday and Bêl Šadê”, Journal of Biblical Literature 88, 470f.
  • ETSCL: Narratives featuring deities: Other deities, including “The Marriage of Martu” in Unicode and ASCII.
  • Iconography of Amurru (PDF-article)

And specifically attested to the Sumerian GOD Ashur as we discovered earlier in this article to which I will quote again for a quick reference back to that segment:
 

Ashur (אַשּוּר; often also transliterated as Asshur to reflect the pointing of Hebrew letter ‘ש‘ (Shin) in the Masoretic text, which doubles the ‘ש’), was the second son of Shem, the son of Noah.

Yes it’s a crazy and confusing mess isn’t it? But this is what you should expect to see when usurping was a very common practive amongst competing religions, cults, cultures, and beliefs all fighting to be the dominant king of the hill. Much of it motivated by power, control, wealth, control of natural resources, and influence in that region of the world. So what we learn from this is that it is not so odd that Yahweh is associated with Pagan deities, culture, and oral traditions since those are the very roots of their religion.. It’s odd however knowing this while Yahwists protest to be so anti-Pagan when they themselves were Pagan. However, it is likely they distinguished Paganism as polytheistic as a method of separating themselves from Paganism.., as if that would actually make any real distinction of separation.  However, all they really were was an example of Pagan monotheism. So all of this is very strong evidence of the Yahwist monotheistic cult using the process of usurping the Pagan deities into the Persona of Yahweh, and further backed up by the added passage that claims Yahweh was the GOD of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Clearly the Yahwists laying a siege to be king of the hill…, God of the Mountains, and rulers of all the realms below as their supposed promised lands! We can pack up our gear hear while watching out for talking snakes and push on as we further see this seige outlined not just in Exodus, but in Genesis as well:

the devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendor. 9“All this I will give you,” he said, “if you will bow down and worship me.”

Genesis 35: 10-12:

“You shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel shall be your name….I am God Almighty (El Shaddai); be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall come from you, and kings shall come forth from you.  The land which I gave to Abraham and Isaac, I will give it to you, and I will give the land to your descendants after you.”

Genesis 26: 2-5, Yahweh confirmed His promise to Isaac:

“Do not go down to Egypt; stay in the land of which I shall tell you.  Sojourn in this land and I will be with you and bless you, for to you and to your descendants I will give all these lands, and I will establish the oath which I swore to your father Abraham.  I will multiply your descendants as the stars of heaven, and will give your descendants all these lands; and by your descendants all the nations of the earth shall be blessed; because Abraham obeyed Me and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes and My Laws.”

Though despite the amusing Irony of Satan and Yahweh above,  all these deity names can not be the same deity as Yahweh since EL, El Elyon are only really attested to EL and his son Baal. They and El shaddia all have different roots apart from Yahweh. It is possible that EL and El Shaddai might be different names for the same deity, but Yahweh most likely originally a desert demon GOD closely associated with the Egyptian moon GOD “Yah” as discussed earlier. Although, if you need a further example of how we can know Yahwists usurped all these other gods, we can address another example regarding one of the edits that took place after Yahweh’s introduction to the Canaanites/Israelits by the Yahwists by referencing the Dead Sea Scrolls in regard to Deuteronomy 32:8-9. It is here where we see Yahweh being once stated as a son of EL, and then through editing Yahweh gets equated with El Elyon:

“When El Elyon gave to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of men, he fixed the bounds of the peoples according to the number of the sons of God (El). For Yahweh’s portion is his people, Jacob his allotted inheritance.”

This was of course edited to what you find in the duet:

Deuteronomy 32:8-9:

“When the Most High (EL ELyon) divided their inheritance to the nations,
When He separated the sons of Adam,
He set the boundaries of the peoples
According to the number of the children of Israel EL.
For the LORD’s (Yahweh’s) portion is His people;
Jacob is the place of His inheritance.”

I fixed it so you can see where it was edited..And is further supported by:

“son of EL” as this Ugarit Canaanite text (KTU 1.1IV 14):

Source:

The Israelites in history and tradition Niels Peter Lemche – 1998 – 246 “Maybe also the Ugaritic passage KTU 1.1:IV:14-15 should be included in the discussion: sm . bny . yw . ilt, translated by Mark S. Smith in Simon B. Parker, ed., Ugaritic Narrative Poetry (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1997), 89 “of the son of god, Yahweh.”

Hence translated as:

“son of EL” as this Ugarit Canaanite text (KTU 1.1IV 14) shows: sm . bny . yw . ilt: “The name of the son of god, Yahweh.”

And we all know that “El ELyon” was only ever associated specifically to the EL family / pantheon., and specifically attested to EL or his son Baal. This didn’t changed until after the injection of the Yahwist cult movement, and until after the Yahwists usurped the El Pantheon, or began to usurp the El Pantheon. It was a clever replacing of EL with “Israel” with the equating of Yahweh with El ELyon. But even if this wasn’t the case, and the edit never happened, we only need to know what Israel actually means:

The name Yiśrā’ēl (‘Israel’), meaning ‘ēl strives’ or ‘struggled with él’.

And it can’t get anymore obvious than this, and it’s even supported by the Oxford Companion to World Mythology here::

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology states

It seems almost certain that the God of the Jews evolved gradually from the Canaanite El, who was in all likelihood the ‘God of Abraham’… If El was the high god of Abraham – Elohim, the prototype of Yahveh – Asherah was his wife, and there are archeological indications that she was perceived as such before she was in effect ‘divorced’ in the context of emerging Judaism of the 7th century BCE.(See 2 Kings 23:15)”.

^Leeming, David (2005). The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 118. ISBN978-0-19-515669-0. LCCN2005014216. OCLC60492027.

Although the Oxford Companion to World Mythology states EL was a Prototype of Yahweh, The Oxford University Press stated the following:

Before El’s revelation with the name of Yahweh, it is said in Genesis 14:18–20 that Abraham accepted the blessing of El, when Melchizedek, the king of Salem and high priest of its deity El Elyon blessed him.[19] One scholarly position is that the identification of Yahweh with Ēl is late, that Yahweh was earlier thought of as only one of many gods, and not normally identified with Ēl.

^Coogan, Michael David (2009). A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 74. ISBN978-0-19-533272-8. LCCN2008034190. OCLC243545942.

Essentially El wasn’t a prototype, El was usurped by the Yahwist monotheists, and thus equated to Yahweh.. And the evidence goes much deeper than this as we explore the Ammorite and Canaanite origins we also come across the Hyksos to whom were likely the Shasu, or whom brought the Egyptian Moon GOD Yah north after being evicted from Egypt. And the interesting thing about this is that they were from Canaan prior to taking rule in Egypt. Thus giving further support to them having the knowledge and know how to usurp the Canaanite Pantheon into their own little Yahwist cult movement.

The origin of the term “Hyksos” derives from the Egyptian expression heka khasewet (“rulers of foreign lands”), used in Egyptian texts such as the Turin King List to describe the rulers of neighbouring lands. This expression begins to appear as early as the late Old Kingdom in Egypt, referring to various Nubian chieftains, and as early as the Middle Kingdom, referring to the Semitic chieftains of Syria and Canaan.

Hyksos were likely Semites who came from the Levant. Kamose, the last king of the Theban 17th Dynasty, refers to Apophis as a “Chieftain of Retjenu (i.e., Canaan)” in a stela that implies a Semitic Canaanite background for this Hyksos king: this is the strongest evidence for a Canaanite background for the Hyksos. Khyan’s name “has generally been interpreted as Amorite “Hayanu” (reading h-ya-a-n) which the Egyptian form represents perfectly, and this is in all likelihood the correct interpretation.”[6]Kim S.B. Ryholt furthermore observes the name Hayanu is recorded in the Assyrian king-lists for a “remote ancestor” of Shamshi-Adad I (c. 1813 BC) of Assyria, which suggests that it had been used for centuries prior to Khyan’s own reign.[7]

The issue of Sakir-Har‘s name, one of the three earliest 15th Dynasty kings, also leans towards a West Semitic or Canaanite origin for the Hyksos rulers; if not the Hyksos peoples themselves.

And this gets back into how this specifically deals with this article on Mountain GOD worship, and gives us some possible further understanding of the evolution the Egyptian Moon GOD to that of a Moon Mountain GOD as we see Ryholt takes note of the name Sakir-Har:

Sakir-Har is evidently a theophoric name compounded with hr, Canaanite harru, [or] ‘mountain.’ This sacred or deified mountain is attested in at least two other names, which are both West Semitic Ya’qub-Har and Anar-Har. And so there is reason to suspect that the present name also may be West Semitic. The element skr seems identical to śkr, ‘to hire, to reward,’ which occurs in several Amorite names. Assuming that śkr takes a nominal form as in the names sa-ki-ru-um and sa-ka-ŕu-um, the name should be transliterated as either Sakir-Har or Sakar-Har. The former two names presumably mean ‘the Reward.’ Accordingly, the name here under consideration would mean ‘Reward of Har.'[8][9]

6^ Ryholt, Kim S.B.. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.CE., Museum Tuscalanum Press (1997) p.128.
7^ Ryholt, p.128
8^ Ryholt, pp.127–128
9^ http://www.religionacademy.com/hyksos

Thus even here you we find typical mountain GOD worship, and that of a sacred mountain. This form of worship is very prominent in ancient religion and culture. And from everything we have come to learn above, we can now grapple on to some very Key things we have noted from The Encyclopedia Britannica in regards to the very common worship of mountain GODs. And for this next section of reaching for the summit to stare down and meet the bubbling molten caldera truth face to face,  we will try and focus on some of those listed below:

* The belief that mountains are close to the sky (as heavenly ladders)
*
Climbing a Mountain to receive instructions, to pray, and to meet with GOD
* Mountains serve as the abodes of the gods (Mt Sinai – see main article)
* They frequently become the cosmic mountain (EXPL: Creator Mountain GOD of the Earth and Heavens)
* pillar of the world, pillars, or pillars upholding the sky (see Exodus and Genesis 31:43-54) And Genesis 31 also applies to rituals and sacrifices below.
* Ritual and sacrifices performed and offered to the Mountain GODs.

– Chapter 5
REACHING FOR THE SUMMIT

Now as we make these final last efforts to reach the peak of truth, I will just take the provided list above and focus on the ones not covered in the first Article “Yahweh: The Worshiping Of A Volcano Fire God Of War.. So let me address those here as our plan in picking the best path to reaching the summit of this volcanic mountain of wisdom. So out of the above list, this is our final ascent, and our final list below that which I will guide you through one step at a time up the ladder into the heavens of knowledge said in Genesis to make us Like one of the GODS.. But be Fore warned, it is forbidden to eat the fruit of the sacred tree on this sacred mountain :

* Mountains seen as Heavenly ladders:
* Climbing the Mountain to receive instructions, to pray, and to meet with GOD
* Cosmic Mountain of Creation

This forbidden list is special because we can find these very examples in bible, and more importantly in Genesis, a creation story regarding these beliefs. It is here that we look up at the peak so near that we can find a reference to heavenly ladders cited in Genesis, and to where El Shaddai becomes Jacobs El Elohim.  You can find this in Genesis chapter 12 in the story of Abraham where El Shaddia is introduced as “GOD Almighty”, as “GOD of the Mountains”, and equated with El Elyon to which I attested to both “EL” and “Ba’al of the Canaanite Pantheon.  This is where Abraham is established as worshiping El Elyon as El Shaddai. El Shaddai being of course an Amorite deity claimed by some to be one of the names for “EL or El Elyon” within the Canaanite polytheistic religion. However, as noted, the Amorite deity is also referred to as the “usurper”, and this was likely an attempt to usurp the Canaanite Pantheon of “EL”. And like a cause and reason for the Yahwists to dislike the Amorites since they represented competition in doing so.. However, You can see Abraham’s descendent Jacob in Genesis 18 to where Jacob * climbs a ladder to talk to El Elyon (El) in a dream. Here in Genesis 18, we can note the first thing on our list in regards to the Encyclopedia of Britannica on mountain god worship, and mountains being considered as heavenly ladders to heaven. This dates back to the Egyptians, Sumerians, and even extends itself into the heart of Greek mythology. Thus what we have here is a very common aspect of mountain god worship. * Thus climbing the mountain of god is going to meet with god, and or meet and get instructions from said mountain spirits and gods thought to dwell in and on top of these holly mountains. So here is genesis 18 (Genesis 28:11 – 19):

11 So he came to a certain place and stayed there all night, because the sun had set. And he took one of the stones of that place and put it at his head, and he lay down in that place to sleep. 12 Then he dreamed, and behold, a ladder was set up on the earth, and its top reached to heaven; and there the angels of God were ascending and descending on it.

13 And behold, the Lord stood above it and said: “I am the Lord God of Abraham your father and the God of Isaac; the land on which you lie I will give to you and your descendants.

Jacob then goes on and makes this deity his Elohim to which means he makes this GOD his primary GOD of worship, or father or all other GOD’s. It is also note worthy of how * Moses climbs Mt Sinai to receive the ten commandments demonstrates the second key point not discussed in my first article. And if you notice, this also goes back to the Sumerians and the Egyptians that predate Judaism, Yahwism, and Christianity by more than a thousand years.  El Shaddai then simply Gets replaced, equated to, or usurped by Yahweh in Exodus to which is clear stated in Exodus 6:2-3. Thus we get Yahweh being exclaimed as being greater than all other GODS in Exodus 18:11:

Exodus 18:11 “Now I know Yahweh is greater than all other GODS”

And what did we learn from Exodus in my first article? Well, it depicts this GOD as a Volcanic Mountain GOD greater than all other gods, and equated to the previous mountain GOD El , El Elyon, and El Shaddia as discussed in the main article. These Gods of sacred mountains are often considered creators of the world, and as cosmic mountain Gods. Gods such as the Egyptian Ptah, the Amorite Shaddai to whom are credited with the creation of the world usually depicted as volcanic mountains..

The concept of divine regulation of the world from a mountain venue was universal in ancient times. The scholar of comparative religion Mircea Eliade says that “the peak of the cosmic mountain is not only the highest point on earth, it is also the earth’s navel, the point where creation had its beginning” — the root. According to Eliade, “This cosmic mountain may be identified with a real mountain, or it can be mythic , but it is aways placed at the center …

Examples abound: the Mesopotamian ziggurat is properly called a cosmic mountain…” Richard J. Clifford prefers the term “cosmic mountain” to “sacred mountain”. The mention of “holy mountain” evokes mythological thoughts of the cosmic mountain that stands at the center of the world. This is the place where creation began, a point of contact between the human and divine worlds.

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/cosmic-mountain.htm

This cosmic mountain belief structure also stems back to the Egyptians and Sumerians, and has stretched across many other religions since.. This is especially true in regards to the worship of Yahweh, and especially so since Yahweh is the focus of this article. It is here in Exodus 33:7-10 do we find a prime example:

Exodus 33:7-10 refers to a “tent of meeting”, which was set up outside of camp with the pillar of cloud visible at its door. The people directed their worship toward this center.[1] Historical criticism attributes this description to the Elohist source (E),[1] which is believed to have been written about 850 BCE or later.[7]

And this worship towards the center in mountain GOD worship extends to other highly sacred places like the Dome of the Rock, one of Islam‘s holiest sites:

The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة‎, translit.: Masjid Qubbat As-Sakhrah, Hebrew: כיפת הסלע‎, translit.: Kipat Hasela) is a shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem. The structure has been refurbished many times since its initial completion in 691 CE at the order of Umayyad CaliphAbd al-Malik. The site’s significance stems from religious traditions regarding the rock, known as the Foundation Stone, at its heart.

The Dome of the Rock refers to the Foundation Stone in which the Jews face while praying

The Foundation Stone (Hebrew: אבן השתייה, translit. Even haShetiya) or Rock (Arabic: صخرة translit. Sakhrah, Hebrew: סלע translit.: Sela) is the name of the rock at the heart of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. It is also known as the Pierced Stone because it has a small hole on the southeastern corner that enters a cavern beneath the rock, known as the Well of Souls. It is the holiest site in Judaism (Midrash Tanhuma, chapter 10); Jewish tradition views it as the spiritual junction of Heaven and Earth. Jews traditionally face it while praying, in the belief that it was the location of the Holy of Holies in the Temple.

According to the sages of the Talmud[13] it was from this rock that the world was created, itself being the first part of the Earth to come into existence. In the words of the Zohar:[14] “The world was not created until God took a stone called Even haShetiya and threw it into the depths where it was fixed from above till below, and from it the world expanded. It is the centre point of the world and on this spot stood the Holy of Holies”.

And with this mountain of evidence, it’s safe to say that we have a pretty rock solid case in how Mountains played their role in the evolution of religion.. They have become the abodes and centres of the GODS and the cultures that worshiped them and anthropomorphized them. And this anthropomorphic evidence that will bring us face to face with the God of the Mountains. It here where we dare reach the summit and challenge this deity in a game of wit, and a battle to be “King of the Hill”! And here you look up and see the summit is just a few more steps up the heavenly ladder while asking yourself if you can make it to the top, or if you dare at all risk your mortal soul in such a sure to be cosmic mountain duel to the likes of Marduk and Tiamat crashing, thundering, shaking, and erupting a volcanic fury not seen since the Eruption of Mount Therah! And thus with the summit here before you, do you take those last brave steps?:

Chapter 6
-THE SUMMIT-

As I take my final guiding steps to the peak, I must tell you that one of the most interesting aspects of this anthropomorphism can be understood in how throughout history that these Mountain GOD’s are depicted as bearded, or bearded old men seen as wise and full of wisdom from their old age, and extremely common of mountain god traditions and beliefs in that region and in that era. These are also often referred to as the “primeval gods”:

THE OUREA were the Protogenoi (primeval gods) or rustic Daimones (spirits) of the mountains. Each and every Mountain was said to have its own ancient bearded god. Mountains were occasionally depicted in classical art as bearded old men rising up from between their craggy peaks.

This ranges from the Egyptians, Sumerians, Greeks, and even the Hittites regarding bearded mountain GODS.. More surprisingly, we can find this not only in regards to Yahweh, but also in regards to the Maasai people here in the modern 21st century. The interesting part about the following comparison is how very much alike Yahweh and the Maasai God are depicted, viewed, and worshiped as volcanic bearded mountain GODs.

The Maasai GOD:

In 1993, the carbonatite has extruded forming the white top of Oldoinyo Lengai and this white peak in the heart of the Maasailand is thought to represent the beard of the Maasai God, which is why the Maasai people call it the Mountain of God. David Maige, a senior warden at Tanzania Lake Manyara, told The Namibian this week that apart from contributing to the country’s tourism sector by drawing a lot of tourists, Oldoinyo Lengai is also a holy mountain for the Maasai people, just like Namibia’s Ovahimba people believe in their holy fire. He said the Maasai people use the mountain as a site to conduct rituals such as sacrifices and prayers. “There are many American and European scientists studying and monitoring the activity of the mountain,” said Maige. He said the mountain also offers wonderful view of Lake Natron. He said when the mountain erupts the Maasai people believe that their God is angry and they have to go to the mountain to placate him with prayers. Maige said the lower slopes of the mountain are used by the Maasai people for grazing cattle as the volcanic soil is very fertile for growing grass.

http://www.namibian.com.na/indexx.php?archive_id=75125&page_type=archive_story_detail&page=1999

This Modern day example highlights not only the common depiction of a description of a mountain GOD with a beard, but also in how their GOD is referred to as the “Mountain of GOD”, and a place of rituals and sacrifices.. This is also noted clearly in Indonesian Volcano worship: “King Of The Mountain” as well. These traditions and beliefs can also of course be found in the bible, especially in exodus and in the case of the tribal meeting at the foot of Mt Sinai.. However, for me to further explain how this relates to the Maasai, and what you can expect to see at the summit just a few steps away, I will use verses in the bible within Daniel and Revelations as references of comparison to how the Maasai describe and worship their Volcanic deity. You can see below and take note of the white bearded Volcanic Mountain GOD We have come to know in Exodus as Yahweh in the bible, the GOD you will face if you choose to defy the forbidden rule that only the priestly may climb the mountain of GOD to meet with him:

The Bible:

Daniel 7: 9-10:

9 “As I looked,
“thrones were set in place,
and the Ancient of Days took his seat.
His clothing was as white as snow;
the hair of his head was white like wool.
His throne was flaming with fire,
and its wheels were all ablaze.
10 A river of fire was flowing,
coming out from before him.
Thousands upon thousands attended him;
ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him.
The court was seated,
and the books were opened.

And this isn’t the only reference in the bible either. Hence, it doesn’t just occur once as you can also find it here:

Revelation 1:10-15

:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,
:11 Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.
:12 And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks;
:13 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, :and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.
:14 His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire;
:15 And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters.

Not only does this describe the typical Mountain Volcano GOD, you can see how the Maasai worship of their GOD is much in the same way as you find here in the bible..You are Now face to face with this GOD and standing on the very peak of his sacred mountain… You stand before a bubbling caldera that if angered could smite you, destroy you, and speak to you through fire, thundering, and the cracking of lightning! He dares you to jump in and challenge him to a test to his authority in an effort to see who remains or becomes king of the hill.. But yet you realize you don’t have to jump in and fight this GOD to take the crown.. As they say, to know a GOD’s identity gives you power over them.. All you have to do is tell him what you have learned, you know what and who he is, why you are no longer afraid, why you will not bow down before him, how you now amusingly know where the Jewish seven Candle sticks come from, why they regard the flame divine, and why they believe the spirit of GOD is within the flame. You now have commanding power in the realization that he is but a man made GOD, a figment of the human imagination, and a classic case of anthropomorphism.

And as we stand together gazing at GOD, I nudge you with a smile and tell you in a whisper that Moses wasn’t just referencing the “burning bush”, but that to which is associated volcanic activity, and that which may also perhaps give you a deeper understanding of the “Shin ” ש “ , this deity, and what El Shaddai actually means in terms of “GOD ALMIGHTY” & “GOD OF THE MOUNTAINS”. Furthermore, I also came to learn that Mountain GOD worship, or even bearded mountain GODS aren’t just found in Christianity and the modern example I have provided above concerning the Maasai people as we find these beliefs in Korean religions of San shin and Ban Pin Shan, to which also includes the Hittites. So when we read Revelations 1, or Daniel 7, We come to this summit of understanding regarding the worship of Mountain GODS.., and that allows us to understand other parts of the bible such as Revelations 4, Revelations 5:6, Micah 4:1, and Isaiah 2:2 below. And in such, Revelations 4 here especially as it even gives us an understanding of the Golden Crown to which Kings wear, or why priests often dress in white robe with hats of gold. This is without question direct volcano / mountain GOD worship!  And you can once again see where the seven candle sticks comes from in regards to Revelations 4. It is here that the seven blazing lamps on the mountain side, as the seven spirits of GOD, are shown and how they relate to the crowns of GOLD.

Revelations 4:

1After this I looked, and there before me was a door standing open in heaven. And the voice I had first heard speaking to me like a trumpet said, “Come up here, and I will show you what must take place after this.”2At once I was in the Spirit, and there before me was a throne in heaven with someone sitting on it. 3And the one who sat there had the appearance of jasper and carnelian. A rainbow, resembling an emerald, encircled the throne. 4Surrounding the throne were twenty-four other thrones, and seated on them were twenty-four elders. They were dressed in white and had crowns of gold on their heads. 5From the throne came flashes of lightning, rumblings and peals of thunder. Before the throne, seven lamps were blazing. These are the seven spiritsa of God. 6Also before the throne there was what looked like a sea of glass, clear as crystal.

In the center, around the throne, were four living creatures, and they were covered with eyes, in front and in back. 7The first living creature was like a lion, the second was like an ox, the third had a face like a man, the fourth was like a flying eagle. 8Each of the four living creatures had six wings and was covered with eyes all around, even under his wings. Day and night they never stop saying:

“Holy, holy, holy

is the Lord God Almighty,

who was, and is, and is to come.”

9Whenever the living creatures give glory, honor and thanks to him who sits on the throne and who lives for ever and ever, 10the twenty-four elders fall down before him who sits on the throne, and worship him who lives for ever and ever. They lay their crowns before the throne and say:

11“You are worthy, our Lord and God,

to receive glory and honor and power,

for you created all things,

and by your will they were created

and have their being.”

Revelation 5:6

And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth.

Micah 4:1
In the last days the mountain of the LORD’s temple will be established as chief among the mountains; it will be raised above the hills, and peoples will stream to it.

Isaiah 2:2

2Now it will come about that
In the last days
The mountain of the house of the LORD
Will be established as the chief of the mountains,
And will be raised above the hills;
And all the nations will stream to it.

3And many peoples will come and say,
“Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD,
To the house of the God of Jacob;
That He may teach us concerning His ways
And that we may walk in His paths.”
For the law will go forth from Zion
And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.

So does all this Mountain GOD worship still exist in Modern Christianity? Well, it sure does:

http://www.carmelitesistersocd.com/who/shield.asp

Article Photo

Abstract:

The center of the shield depicts a mountain symbolizing Mt. Carmel in Israel where the Order was born as well as the soul’s union with God through prayer and contemplation. The lifelong deepening and intensifying of this union with God is signified by the soul’s ascent up the mountain of the Lord.

They are just a little more sneaky about it these days since we know what volcanoes are now, and they would look really silly directly worshiping one, and a savior Sun GOD to one in the public eye here in the 21st century.. Especially if they intend on continuing to prey on human ignorance and have that absolute negative and invisible GOD to do it with. The last thing they want you to know is the truth.  Kind of like how the Catholics pretend Christianity has nothing to do with the Egyptians.


-CONCLUSION-

Giving the Mountain of evidence, this is surely the most high of mountains.. It is here at the summit do we stand knowing what it’s like to be king of the hill. Knowledge is power, and power rules the kingdoms before us. Those keeping the masses in the shadow darkness of ignorance, in burning fear of the lake of fire,  keep them as subservient to their will.  Often are people not taught the history of their religion, they are taught only what the cult, church, priests, witch doctors ect want them to be taught. And that is for the most part, blind and devoted obedience without question, and to never seek to see above the clouds or climb the ladder of knowledge to its summit to see the world for what it really is.. And today the Earth shakes, and the mountain of truth erupts in a pillar of knowledge. And as these Egyptian proverb state:

– There are two kinds of error: blind credulity and piecemeal criticism. Never believe a word without putting its truth to the test; discernment does not grow in laziness; and this faculty of discernment is indispensable to the Seeker. Sound skepticism is the necessary condition for good discernment; but piecemeal criticism is an error.

– If the Master teaches what is error, the disciple’s submission is slavery ; if he teaches truth, this submission is ennoblement

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s