Yahweh: The Rock of Israel

Welcome to part 3 of:
Yahweh: The Worshiping Of A Volcano Fire God Of War?

In Ancient history, and in today’s modern culture rocks are powerful symbols, particularly in dealing within religion, and more prudently to this article regarding Yahweh as the Rock of Israel. This column entry will address Yahweh being directly referred to as  the “Rock of Israel”, While of course keeping in mind that Yahwism assimilated El into Yahweh’s iconography. Thus with that said, this article will further address and lend a great amount of support to my previous articles that have explored in detail the hypothesis proposed by Sigmund Freud.  His hypothesis also noted in the Smithsonian Institutes  Report of the Board of Regents in which purposes Yahweh as a Volcanic Mountain God, or God of the Mountains.  The Rock of Israel, so often sung from the Psalm, the hymns of El:

“The Lord is My Rock” (Psalm 18:2,3) is a song from the God Rocks! BibleToons Believe & Obey God’s Son CD.

      One Interesting thing that stands out whenever I see Christians sing or quote from the bible is that they more often than not literally quote mine it, and all while leaving out the parts they don’t want their captive audience to hear. This is very common in religious propaganda or when proselytizing, and so I dare say they should have sung the rest of Psalms 18 to give everyone the entire context of what the “Lord is my rock, my refuge, salvation, and deliverer from my enemies” is actually referring to.. But again this isn’t exactly an Earth shaking heavy molten metal band either. Thus I dare say they misrepresent!  Now despite the Christian Rock movement stepping on the stage of musical arts to try and target a younger generation, rocks seem to have some sort of special magic over us throughout the evolution of cultural identities across the globe,  or the big ROCK we live on to which we call Earth…, our abode, our home in which is full of all sorts of interesting rocks of various shapes, sizes, and wondrous colors. Some are clear as crystal, and others seemingly like painted eggs with swirls of bright to earthy shades.. Heck, if you are a Christian, you might even like to cite Revelations 21:11:

Revelation 21:11
Having the glory of God, its radiance like a most rare jewel, like a jasper, clear as crystal.

Such trinkets of awe are something we often sought after as kids as I imagine many of us often loved to collect rocks as we kicked along our adventures in the woods, or just on the side of road on the way to and from school.  And thus besides rock bands, such a fun activity that is often a science educational tool to teach kids about these little amazing pebbles suddenly becomes a child learning activity in a 13 week Children’s Ministry Program for mixed ages about how rocks and stones can teach them about faith and the heritage of their GOD Yahweh:

A 13-Week Children’s Ministry Program for Mixed Ages

Kids Rock activity 1

This Children’s ministry program even includes a fun little activity to Challenge the worshipers of Baal in a dangerous game of who can set the alter of their rock ablaze first to determine who’s the “true GOD”.. A game of Elijah :

Kids Rock activity 2

That’s a pretty Rocky Ministry program for the kids there.  However, even as adults rocks fascinate us as objects of beauty and wonder in which we often give meaning to in our lives when on that one knee proposing to a husband or wife hoped to be. That diamond to us is more than just the rock formed under the immense pressures over thousands to millions of years. A diamond is forever, a dream so many see in these perfectly cut and polished gems as a foundation of an everlasting relationship of the strongest bonds..  Yet beside love, we also find that a rock can represent the strength, power, wisdom, and an unwavering persistence in a foundation in which is believed to give purpose, protection, and understanding.. In ancient mountain god worship in Mesopotamia, rocks often represented many or all these things. Rocks after all are often considered representations of the fortress of their faith, their god, and defense of their beliefs, lives, culture, cities, and children.. Much like pebbles of knowledge collected, we find such importance and the natural influence of rock’s and mountains in the case of the Hittite Mountain GOD Sharruma: ..

Sharruma- The Hittite Protector God.
The Hittite way of creating art was to carve it in part of the rock and leave the rest in its natural state. God of Hurrian religion. He is the son of the weather god, Teshub, and his wife, Hebat. His name means “king of the mountains”.
This stone relief shows Sharruma, the Hittite God who protects The King Tuthaliya IV.

* Iconography of Deities and Demons: Electronic Pre-Publication (PDF)
* Representation gives Sharruma the epithet. “king of the mountain” (LAROCHE 1963: 282f).
* 1.3. Solar deities. MOORTGAT–. CORRENS (1986: 185)

We literally see it carved in stone and painted on the walls from the Great Pyramids to the ziggurats of Babylon. They are often considered representations of the abodes of their God(s) to being the funerary mounds of their dead kings.  Their laws written in stone gives us the sense of them being permanent and everlasting guidance with unchangeable legitimacy and credulity. The rock is a block of many to the Castles of Kings, or the fortifications of their walls against those who dare seek to scale them in war.  They are weapons forged, and the projectiles of catapults to wage a siege to become kings of lands conquered.. However, the biggest rocks of them all were the Mountains seen as the abodes to their mighty GOD’s. They were seen as indestructible, unmovable, the conjurers of storms, the givers of life, and the fertility of the land as rulers of those whom live their lives in the valleys below.  Mountains represented the foundations of the Earth and the pillars that upheld the sky that which control the forces of nature. They are also seen as ladders to the heavens in where one could climb to go and meet with their God(s), pray, and worship them while often seeking instructions of governance. Thus in this journey to understanding Yahweh as the Rock of Israel,  I bring you to a place as a starting point in how rocks relate to worship among mountain Gods, and even a place in which Christianity had come to visit. This is a place known as Petra,  to which in Greek means “Stone”, or noted as Al-Batrā in Arabic “The Rock”.:

a historical and archaeological city in the Jordanian governorate of Ma’an, that is famous for its rock-cut architecture.
Petra is usually identified with Sela which means a rock, the Biblical references refer to it as “the cleft in the rock”, referring to its entrance. The second book of Kings xiv. 7 seems to be more specific. In the parallel passage, however, Sela is understood to mean simply “the rock”

“Robert Fulford’s column about Petra, Jordan”. Robertfulford.com. 1997-06-18. Retrieved 2014-02-06.

This site was a fortress and a place of worship for pre-Islamic polytheism, or where the Nabataeans worshiped the Arab GOds. The most notable at Petra was their worship of Dushara and al-‘Uzzá, both of which were represented as pillars or blocks. These were mountain GOD’s to where the lord of the Mountain Dushara was worshiped:

Dushara(Arabic: ذو شرى‎, “Lord of the Mountain”), also transliterated as Dusares, a deity in the ancient Middle East worshipped by the Nabataeans at Petra and Madain Saleh (of which city he was the patron). He was mothered by Manat the goddess of fate.[1] In Greek times, he was associated with Zeus because he was the chief of the Nabataean pantheon as well as with Dionysus. His sanctuary at Petra contained a great temple in which a large cubical stone was the centrepiece.

This deity was mentioned by the 9th century CE historian Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi, who wrote in The Book of Idols (Kitab al-Asnām) that: “The Banū al-Hārith ibn-Yashkur ibn-Mubashshir of the ʻAzd had an idol called Dū Sharā.”

Dushara being the head of his pantheon is like many heads of Pantheons in Mesopotamia, he was of course a god of the mountains. Details of this religion surrounding Dushara is obscure however.., this being there isn’t much literature to go on, and some of the following may or may not be accurate since reliable sources are hard to find. However, from the sources I did find, it appears that Dushara shares a common theme with Christianity in that he’s referred to as “The GOD of our lord, or “The King”.  Furthermore,  Dushara is “the one of ash-Shara,” and the ash-Shara range should be considered himd or haram during the pre-Islamic period, thus indicating a sacred space that provides protection for trees, animals, people of worship. This place of protection is referred to as Sharay, the Nabatean’s heavenly home that is of a place of dense vegetation, or paradise similar to that of the Garden of Eden on some inaccessible mountain top. And according to Moon-o-theism, Volume II of II (P.299-300), Dahsara would be referred to as the “Master of Sharay”, or if you like “King of Heaven” as we can noted in many other Mountain GOD religions. This in which is also referring to the Mountains east of Petra, the home of the Edomites.  Shara is the name for the Edom Mountains in which Israelites called Seir . These mountains are now called the Shara Range around this ancient city of Petra. This connection is quite interesting as the biblical deity you have come to know as Yahweh is repeatedly referenced in the Old Testament to residing in and on Mt. Seir, and for reference see : The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History …, Volume 11). .:

“He calleth to me out of Seir” (Isaiah 21:11)

A range that consists mainly of rough rocky heights with many almost inaccessible peaks separated by deep gorges. But there are also areas of fertile land where agriculture is taken to advantage., and interestingly enough there is some discussion on a quick search about Eden and Edom being perhaps the same place.. However I haven’t had time to really research that discussion, so I will leave that as food for thought. Thus despite the interesting possible connection with Seir,  It’s also said that Dushara and Yahweh inhabited a rock called Beth EL (The house of GOD), also noted here at Nabataeans – Home – NET :

The Nabataean shrine usually consisted of a standing stone. Some scholars call such a stone a {jtips}The word is ultimately derived from the Hebrew “beth-el,” meaning “place of God,” because of the stone that Jacob set up as after using it as a pillow; he called the site Bethel

However the interesting connections to Yahweh, Judaism, and Christianity, we see the traditional Mountain GOD worship in Dushara and the importance of the symbolic nature of the Rock, or standing stone to present a divine mountain deity. Of such, it is often that stone representations of the pillars, these in which mountains represented to ancient Mesopotamian cultures, are erected on or near the holy mountains in which they believed their GOD(s) resided. These of which are sometimes direct representations of their mountain deities. Thus by example we can see that Moses is said to erect 12 pillars and an alter according to the Lord’s Instructions.:

Then Moses carefully wrote down all the LORD’s instructions. Early the next morning Moses got up and built an altar at the foot of the mountain. He also set up twelve pillars, one for each of the twelve tribes of Israel.

These pillars are representations of the lord and the foundation of the unification of the 12 tribes into one religion in the worship of Yahweh, God of the Mountains. Furthermore,  the erecting of such pillars is often a symbolization of the abodes, or the “house of GOD” as noted in the two types of Messeboth:The Bible and other ancient literature mention two types of : those representing gods and their abodes and those representing ancestral spirits. Archaeology confirms the existence of both types; people in many traditional societies throughout the world still erect stones of the second type for their ancestors. In the ancient Near East the best-known reference to the ancestral comes from , a narrative inscribed on 15th-century B.C.E. cuneiform tablets from Ugarit (on the Mediterranean coast of Syria). In the story, Dan-el, father of Aqhat, repeatedly complains to the gods that he “does not have a son to set up in the temple in his name.” Although the translation of the last two words is controversial, the stone is clearly understood to contain and preserve the ancestral spirit.

The Bible and other ancient literature mention two types of masseboth: those representing gods and their abodes and those representing ancestral spirits. Archaeology confirms the existence of both types; people in many traditional societies throughout the world still erect stones of the second type for their ancestors. In the ancient Near East the best-known reference to the ancestral massebah comes from The Tale of Aqhat, a narrative inscribed on 15th-century B.C.E. cuneiform tablets from Ugarit (on the Mediterranean coast of Syria). In the story, Dan-el, father of Aqhat, repeatedly complains to the gods that he “does not have a son to set up massebah in the temple in his name.” Although the translation of the last two words is controversial, the stone is clearly understood to contain and preserve the ancestral spirit.

I will concentrate here on the first type of masseboth, those that represent deities and their abodes. One Biblical example is the story of Jacob at Beth-El. After he awakens from his dream of a ladder ascending to heaven, Jacob takes the stone that served as his pillow and sets it up, declaring, “This stone that I have set up as a pillar (massebah) shall be God’s house” (Genesis 28:22). He probably believed that the stone contained God’s power and spirit.

Three inscribed basalt stelae or pillars were discovered near Sefire, Syria, probably in the teens of the 20th century, under circumstances that are still unclear. These Sefire inscriptions, first published in 1931, record an eighth-century B.C.E. treaty between the vassal/king of Arpad and his overlord. The text, the longest intact inscription in Old Aramaic, contains over 100 legible lines. An introductory section invokes several well-known Syrian and Mesopotamian gods as witnesses to the treaty. It then identifies the stone pillars upon which the treaty is inscribed as the “house of god.”3

Later Arabian sources apply the same term, “house of god,” to standing stones. Similarly, a ninth-century B.C.E. Assyrian document describing King Tukulti Ninurta’s campaign to the Lebanon coast says that “he camped by the stones in which the great gods are dwelling.”4


^3 oseph A. Fitzmyer, The Aramaic Inscription of Sefire (Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1967) and James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Bible (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1974), pp. 659–661. See also P. Kyle McCarter, Jr. Ancient Inscriptions (Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1996), pp. 94–95.

^4 Wolfgang Schramm, “Die Annalen des Assyrischen Konigs Tukulti-Ninurta II,” Bibliotheca Orientalis 27 (1970), pp. 147–160.

We also find this stone erecting tradition where rocks are the warrior stones in which represent the warrior deities in the Tibetan civilization where heaps of stones are known as the warriors castles, or castles of the warrior GODs (Tibetan Civilization By R. A. Stein p.206 -207). Hence the heaps of stones represent the warrior gods of the mountains, and are often erected at the summits of their holy mountains:


The god’s associated with sacred mountains and heaps of stones, the gods of the summits, Gods of the country, Gods of the males, or warrior gods, reign, too, over man’s head and shoulders, the mighty helmet, and the roof. On the roof of houses are to be found stone alters, flags, tree branches, horns of animals, and the little stove in which Juniper branches are burnt to worship those Gods with their scented smoke.

These Tibetan rituals include burning sacrifices and offerings to their gods, and are likewise found regarding how the ancient people in Mesopotamia worshiped mountain deities.. Yahweh, for example, loves the smell of burning flesh to which was a ritual practice to appease or please Yahweh through various sacrifices of animals. In multiple verses of Leviticus 1,  Yahweh is written as giving very explicit instructions on which beasts of the flock to select for burning in to which includes how to wash it, skin it, cut it up, and set it ablaze, This in so to create an aroma pleasing to the LORD… Sounds pretty sick, but I suppose I may ask what else do we expect from a Volcano GOD?

However, the most powerful of Rocks were the Mountains, and more importantly the ones that shake the foundations of the earth, create land, ascend into the heavens, breathed fire, and spoke through thunder and lightning.. A Rock that protests its dominance over all other GODS as a devouring fire, a raging tempest, and as the ultimate fortress of power and strength. Qualities in which many people looked for in a King to rule, and in war with their enemies..  And it is here where I establish the Rock of Israel, and the powerful figure of Yahwism in which others have taken and built their church upon.  This to which of is still expressed today in modern Christianity. Other examples include Organizations like the Rock Of Faith Foundation, names of places like Christ Mountain Colorado, names of churches such as the Mountain Rock Church of Christ, or what we find in sermons such as the“God Of The Mountain And God Of The Valley”  in which really express how much Christianity and Judaism remain as Mountain GOD based religions rooted in the foundations of Pagan and Mesopotamian mountain worship, oral traditions, practices, and rituals.. There is even literally a Mountain Worship – Channel 6. It is an inescapable theme in which the entire bible is structured on and around.. A theme ignored by most as if it doesn’t even exist.. A theme largely over looked by modern scholars and anthropology.. It seems addressing this issue is a volatile one giving we are in the 21st century and a huge portion of the world population still worships a Pagan Mountain GOD. And yet so obviously expressed here in 2 Samuel 22:32:

2 Samuel 22:32
For who is God besides the Lord? And who is the Rock except our God?

And such commentary found in the bible in which suggests “The Rock Of Israel” as merely just a metaphor when latter is more likely literal and metaphorical:

* Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible
The Rock of Israel – The Fountain whence Israel was derived.* Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
the Rock of Israel-This metaphor, which is commonly applied by the sacred writers to the Almighty, was very expressive to the minds of the Hebrew people. Their national fortresses, in which they sought security in war, were built on high and inaccessible rocks.

Despite the obvious Anthropomorphizing of a rock, or in this case a mountain, we will make light of the use of the child activity and metaphorically collect our rocks samples below to examine the faith and heritage of Yahweh while noting what can be expected when dealing with Mountain GOD worship.  Therefore I cite 2 Samuel 22:32  as a verse we come to understand this when we read the rest of 2 Samuel 22, or at least 2-16. And thus as discussed, we see many of these qualities of being a protector, a fortress, a deliverer, and an object of war in which rocks and Mountains represented in ancient Mesopotamia cultural and religious beliefs:

2 Samuel 22:3-16:

David sang to the Lord the words of this song when the Lord delivered him from the hand of all his enemies and from the hand of Saul. 2 He said:

“The Lord is my rock, my fortress and my deliverer;
3     my God is my rock, in whom I take refuge,
    my shield[a] and the horn[b] of my salvation.
He is my stronghold, my refuge and my savior—
from violent people you save me.

4 “I called to the Lord, who is worthy of praise,
and have been saved from my enemies.
5 The waves of death swirled about me;
the torrents of destruction overwhelmed me.
6 The cords of the grave coiled around me;
the snares of death confronted me.

7 “In my distress I called to the Lord;
I called out to my God.
From his temple he heard my voice;
    my cry came to his ears.
8 The earth trembled and quaked,
    the foundations of the heavens[c] shook;
    they trembled because he was angry.
9 Smoke rose from his nostrils;
    consuming fire came from his mouth,
    burning coals blazed out of it.
10 He parted the heavens and came down;
    dark clouds were under his feet.
11 He mounted the cherubim and flew;
    he soared[d] on the wings of the wind.
12 He made darkness his canopy around him—
    the dark[e] rain clouds of the sky.
13 Out of the brightness of his presence
    bolts of lightning blazed forth.
14 The Lord thundered from heaven;
    the voice of the Most High resounded.
15 He shot his arrows and scattered the enemy,
    with great bolts of lightning he routed them.
16 The valleys of the sea were exposed
    and the foundations of the earth laid bare
at the rebuke of the Lord,
    at the blast of breath from his nostrils.

The Lord appears to be David’s volcanic rock, his salvation, his shield and protector in war.. This Rock gives him strength and faith in which he can seek refuge. The Rock is the most powerful of all rocks, it was mighty and could destroy his enemies in a wrath of fire, brimstone, lightning, and earthquake.. He is the deity known, seen, and sought to be feared.  But if you worshiped other mountain GODs, and were not worshiping this Rock, this trembling mountain of fire, he will surely spark his wrath upon you:

Deuteronomy 32:16-22

 They abandoned the God who made them  and rejected the Rock their Savior.16 They made him jealous with their foreign gods and angered him with their detestable idols.17 They sacrificed to false gods, which are not God— gods they had not known, gods that recently appeared, gods your ancestors did not fear.18 You deserted the Rock, who fathered you;  you forgot the God who gave you birth.

19 The Lord saw this and rejected them
because he was angered by his sons and daughters.
20 “I will hide my face from them,” he said,
“and see what their end will be;
for they are a perverse generation,
children who are unfaithful.
21 They made me jealous by what is no god
    and angered me with their worthless idols.
I will make them envious by those who are not a people;
    I will make them angry by a nation that has no understanding.
22 For a fire will be kindled by my wrath,
    one that burns down to the realm of the dead below.
It will devour the earth and its harvests
    and set afire the foundations of the mountains….

It seems here that some rocks get rather jealous and eruptive when you take a liking to another rock, or other rocks for that matter. Well at least apparently the erupting volcanic ones.  However, it had perhaps been logical and reasonable for them to suggest such rocks as being seen to give people the strength and will to fight, to have courage, stand ones ground, and to be steady and sure of themselves in conflict.., and as apparently further noted in Genesis 49:


22 “Joseph is a fruitful vine,
a fruitful vine near a spring,
whose branches climb over a wall.[k]
23 With bitterness archers attacked him;
they shot at him with hostility.
24 But his bow remained steady,
    his strong arms stayed[l] limber,
because of the hand of the Mighty One of Jacob,
    because of the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel,

Thus in such strength and confidence of a rock, we can see that these mountain god cults of high places feel their spirits lifted and rejoice in their Lord of the Mountains to which deliver them and protect them from their enemies. And with such a powerful volcanically eruptive GOD that shakes the very foundations of the Earth, it’s no wonder to them there is no Rock like their GOD among the many other Pagan mountain GOD’s:

1 Samuel 2:1-2:
Then Hannah prayed and said:“My heart rejoices in the Lord;
in the Lord my horn is lifted high.
My mouth boasts over my enemies,
for I delight in your deliverance.
2 “There is no one holy like the Lord;
there is no one besides you;
there is no Rock like our God.

This all seems an awful lot like the childish game of “My rock is better than yours!” being taught in such fun little activities to try and show who’s god is the “True GOD”, The TRUE ROCK to be worshiped as the all powerful one, and as the King of the Mountains. Although if someone rejects or questions the glory of the holy mountain god, those of faith may very well double down and teach their kids about how those people, or how those nations are unwise, or perhaps godless without their Rock:

Deuteronomy 32:28-31:
28 They are a nation without sense,
there is no discernment in them.
29 If only they were wise and would understand this
and discern what their end will be!
30 How could one man chase a thousand,
or two put ten thousand to flight,
unless their Rock had sold them,
unless the Lord had given them up?
31 For their rock is not like our Rock,
    as even our enemies concede.

But if such propaganda or persuasion to convert ceases to work, more extreme measures in these ancient times by this Jealous rock are deemed necessary. For this is a Jealous God of War with a fiery volcanic temper that has no tolerance for disobedience of worshiping other GODS, or no God’s at all.. So when persuasion fails, make them believe with war, fire, thunderstorm, and burning hail raining down from the skies in a fierce wrath to break them, to subdue them, to convert them with force:

Isaiah 30:27-33

27 See, the Name of the Lord comes from afar,
with burning anger and dense clouds of smoke;
his lips are full of wrath,
and his tongue is a consuming fire.
28 His breath is like a rushing torrent,
rising up to the neck.
He shakes the nations in the sieve of destruction;
he places in the jaws of the peoples
a bit that leads them astray.
29 And you will sing
as on the night you celebrate a holy festival;
your hearts will rejoice
as when people playing pipes go up
to the mountain of the Lord,
    to the Rock of Israel.
30 The Lord will cause people to hear his majestic voice
and will make them see his arm coming down
with raging anger and consuming fire,
    with cloudburst, thunderstorm and hail.
31 The voice of the Lord will shatter Assyria;
    with his rod he will strike them down.
32 Every stroke the Lord lays on them
    with his punishing club
will be to the music of timbrels and harps,
as he fights them in battle with the blows of his arm.
33 Topheth has long been prepared;
it has been made ready for the king.
Its fire pit has been made deep and wide,
with an abundance of fire and wood;
the breath of the Lord,
like a stream of burning sulfur,
sets it ablaze.

Terrible as that it seems, it yet gets worse when stones of fire miss, and force or fear fail to convince, rocks and stones become a means to cast out evil, the godless, or even those not priestly who dare to touch the mountain of GOD.  Thus for example, In the five pillars of Islam to which represent the duties of Muslims,  it is near the end of the Hajj when they return to the village of Mina where they practice the ritual of “stoning the devil”. A practice in which they throw at three pillars representing the casting aside temptations as a means of casting out evil. However, in Islam, Judaism, and in Christianity, These once objects of child’s collection often become weapons to enforce and profess the strength of their faith in their mighty Rock on to those that question and refuse accept it.., to kill them with these symbolic objects in public so all can see the strength of the Rock of Israel, and that his foundation extends to the very stones in the hands of  the mighty Shepard’s flock.. This brutal punishment was cast upon various offenses to which include adultery and Acting as a medium or fortuneteller. But more importantly included being a punishment for blasphemy, and worshiping other Mountain God’s or Idols in general :


Leviticus 24:16
And he that blasphemeth the name of the LORD, he shall surely be put to death, and all the congregation shall certainly stone him.

Worshiping of other God’s:

Deuteronomy 17:2 – 17.7 (New International Version)

2 If a man or woman living among you in one of the towns the Lord gives you is found doing evil in the eyes of the Lord your God in violation of his covenant, and contrary to my command has worshiped other gods, bowing down to them or to the sun or the moon or the stars in the sky, and this has been brought to your attention, then you must investigate it thoroughly. If it is true and it has been proved that this detestable thing has been done in Israel, take the man or woman who has done this evil deed to your city gate and stone that person to death. On the testimony of two or three witnesses a person is to be put to death, but no one is to be put to death on the testimony of only one witness. The hands of the witnesses must be the first in putting that person to death, and then the hands of all the people. You must purge the evil from among you.

You can find other quick reference examples here on the Skeptic’s Annotated Bible page, or you can go to Biblegateway.com’s keyword search for easy quick referencing of the subject of stoning, this to where you can read the entire chapters in full context.  However, it is important to note that this practice has largely been abandoned in the Western culture here in the 21st century, but remains much a part of Islamic law unlike most Western Nations that follow secular law.. However, this isn’t to say Christians have not since engaged in the practice of stoning, or have called out in avocation of the practice:

^ http://articles.philly.com/2011-03-18/news/29142081_1_stoning-death-court-documents-police

^ The Rightly Concerned website, an arm of the religious, right-wing American Family Organization, has called for not only the execution of the orca, but death by stoning.

Why? Because the Bible says so of course:

“When an ox gores a man or woman to death, the ox shall be stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten, but the owner shall not be liable.” (Exodus 21:28)

And though many Christian’s may point out where Jesus supposedly stopped the stoning of a woman accused to condemn these actions or calls to, it’s important to note that Jesus avoiding a trap does not mean he has overturned the practice, or sought it unfit as a punishment as he is quoted professing otherwise. in fact we can confirm this in Matthew 5:17-18, this in where he affirms the correctness of the law and implicitly that stoning of disobedient, disrespectful, or dishonorable children was the proper course of action. However, nobody condemned her, and thus the adulterous woman was not stoned. This is because the law states that more than one witness must attest her guilt for her to be condemned. This was a very key part in enforcing the Mosaic law to which often including burning people alive in this Volcano Mountain GOD cult of fire brimstone and war. They were a cult of Dominion Theology to which is the belief that their society should be governed exclusively by the law of God, the Rock of Israel no doubt usurped by the Christian religion where Jesus is idolized and equated to Yahweh. For he was to be crowned King, and professed as the Mountain god manifesting in the flesh so commonly found in Mountain lore in Sumerian, Egyptian, Indonesian, Asian, and Hawaiian deities. More specifically the Egyptians giving Christianity literally evolved mostly out of Egypt. I would perhaps even contest that religion itself likely evolved out of Africa and through Egypt in the evolution of  human civilization.

Furthermore, and once dead, the symbolism continues as we come to understand the funerary stele. The Funerary stela is attested to cultures such as the ancient Egyptians and their sense of the continuity of life through death and what they believed to be beyond. Egyptians placed a Funerary stela in tombs to ensure the availability of the necessities that a person’s ka, or soul, would use in the afterlife. This would of course make the Pyramids funerary Mountains to where their dead kings thought to be their gods manifested in the flesh would ascend to the heavens.  Today we call these Grave stones in Western culture.. In Babylon, the Code of Hammurabi was engraved on a tall stele. However, the origin of the stela, or  funerary stele are unknown, they likely derived from the Egyptian culture during the 1st or 2nd dynasty, and you can see many of them displayed on wikimedia.org, or here for this example of a 2nd dynasty Stele.   Stelae were often used as commemorative stones in ancient Egypt and as boundary markers in Mesopotamia. Some stele were used to note a GOD like Baal or Yahweh,  their spheres of power or reign of control, or as erected stele of worship of a particular deity.. In interestingly enough, the Ba’al stele is very reminiscent of Yahweh’s enforcement of power in Isaiah 30:31-32.

However, stones or rocks are often used as representatives, and used in the personification of Mountain GOD’s. For instance we find following regarding Chinese Steles: Pre-Buddhist and Buddhist Use of a Symbolic Form:

“White Stone”, as the a personification of the Mountain GOD, recalls the use of stones as sacred symbols.

We find this Rock personification, or representation in the Qiang lands where white stones are found everywhere. They symbolize the God of Heaven, God of Earth, God of the Mountains, God of the Trees and Goddess of the Mountains…All of which are associated as mountain deities with various purposes.  And Like Christianity, the most important of them is the God of Heaven to whom can protect the people and their animals. You can find them in shrines in just about every home in the Qiang lands.  And in Revelations 2:17-18.., A White stone is the representation and the personification of the lord of the Mountains, and the Heavens above is seen here where the white stone denotes the presence of the lord as he speaks:

Revelations 2:17-18
Whoever has ears, let them hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To the one who is victorious, I will give some of the hidden manna. I will also give that person a white stone with a new name written on it, known only to the one who receives it.18“To the angel of the church in Thyatira write:

These are the words of the Son of God, whose eyes are like blazing fire and whose feet are like burnished bronze. 19I know your deeds, your love and faith, your service and perseverance, and that you are now doing more than you did at first.

White is usually associated with Mountains, and Mountain Gods that often depict their snow caps to which are often interpreted as their white beards, or clothing. It’s a symbol of good vs the darkness of evil to which has been a battle of light vs the dark forces in cultures throughout the world to this very day. Also throughout the bible, or in Christian theology, they often make reference to a “Living Rock” . A rock they often refer to as Jesus Christ, or the Lord himself.., and as a theme extended to the very worshipers themselves as living Rock’s precious to this GOD of the Mountains.. After all, what Is a Mountain GOD without all the little stones to support him?:

1 Peter 2:4-6
4As you come to him, the living Stone—rejected by humans but chosen by God and precious to him— 5you also, like living stones, are being built into a spiritual housea to be a holy priesthood, offering spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. 6

Like collecting precious slaves rejected by human society symbolized as obedient rocks gathered and piled up to make a spiritual mountain of the lords house, and to be of holy priesthood eternally offering spiritual sacrifices deemed acceptable to the Lord of the Mountains… And as living fine cut and polished slaves mined from the deep caves of human rejection and persecution:

16Live as free people, but do not use your freedom as a cover-up for evil; live as God’s slaves.

Thus becoming living stones as representatives of the Mountain of GOD by doing his work, and by submitting yourselves as slaves of the collective pile strong in obedience and unshakable faith.  Love the family of believers, stone and cast out the non-believers, blasphemers, evil, Satan, and any abominations in the Mountain burning eyes of the lord riding down from the heavens on his white horse dressed in a blood dripping robe.:

Revelation 19:11-16

11I saw heaven standing open and there before me was a white horse, whose rider is called Faithful and True. With justice he judges and wages war. 12His eyes are like blazing fire, and on his head are many crowns. He has a name written on him that no one knows but he himself. 13He is dressed in a robe dipped in blood, and his name is the Word of God. 14The armies of heaven were following him, riding on white horses and dressed in fine linen, white and clean. 15Coming out of his mouth is a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations. “He will rule them with an iron scepter.”a He treads the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God Almighty. 16On his robe and on his thigh he has this name written:

king of kings and lord of lords.

Isaiah 26:2-21

In that day this song will be sung in the land of Judah:

We have a strong city;
God makes salvation
its walls and ramparts.
2 Open the gates
that the righteous nation may enter,
the nation that keeps faith.
3 You will keep in perfect peace
those whose minds are steadfast,
because they trust in you.
4 Trust in the Lord forever,
for the Lord, the Lord himself, is the Rock eternal.
5 He humbles those who dwell on high,
he lays the lofty city low;
he levels it to the ground
and casts it down to the dust….

…20 Go, my people, enter your rooms
and shut the doors behind you;
hide yourselves for a little while
until his wrath has passed by.
21 See, the Lord is coming out of his dwelling
to punish the people of the earth for their sins.
The earth will disclose the blood shed on it;
the earth will conceal its slain no longer.

So when I read these passages, I find it convincing that it is this rock and volcanic mountain imagery to which is so heavily weighed into the foundation of the OT, or even the NT. I even dare say this makes the Abrahamic religions very typical of Pagan Mountain beliefs, oral traditions, or cultural identification literally written in the cold hard stone of the vastly high pillar of evidence I have examined thus far. It’s far to much a part of the religion to represent just a metaphorical context, especially when understanding traditional Mesopotamia worship of GOD of the Mountains. From the Egyptians, Sumerians, Greeks, and to the far east Indonesians, it’s quite seemingly a rock solid case that the Jews, and Hebrews had come to worship a Mountain Volcano GOD of Fire and War. A perhaps once Moon GOD of Egypt to that of rising to becoming the Moon Mountain deity who resides in his Mt Sinai abode.. Though here in the 21st Century that is largely ignored simply by not reading the bible, or by quote mining it, trying to keep up with science, and the by theological progression of a more cosmic supposedly perfect being existing in some other dimensional spirit realm to which all the good Jews, various Christians, and Muslims transcend to go meet and be closer to their own modern ideas of GOD. But despite all that, someone asked me a question if there is something wrong with people worshiping a god of the Mountains.. So I thought about that and simply replied:

I don’t think the articles address whether it is right or wrong to worship a GOD of the Mountains.. If someone chooses to worship Pele the Volcano Goddess, well that is up to them. And if it makes them happy and nice people in doing so, I say go for it! The only time I see where something of the such becomes a problem is if it does the opposite of that and makes you a vile, hateful, and a controlling person who thinks their religion should be enforced on others via legislation and government according to their religious views. Hence who wants sharia law here? However, don’t mistaken my articles to say it’s wrong to worship a Mountain GOD.

– The Rock Of Israel –


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