Chapter 1: Wisdom In The Question
Chapter 2: God Of The Moon Mountain
Chapter 3: Exodus & The Voice Of God
Chapter 4: The Deuteronomy
Chapter 5: Plagues Of Egypt And The Nile Delta
Chapter 6: The Psalms
Chapter 7: Fire, Torment, And Human Sacrifice
— Chapter 2 —
God Of The Moon Mountain
The worship of Yahweh as a deity may have originated in the pre-Israelite people of the Levant region, or more specifically in Median. The Hebrew Bible mentions that this is where Moses meets God, and bring down from the fiery mount the 10 commandments. Then there is also an Egyptian inscription for which possibly relates Yahweh with the Shasu. The Shasu are described as living south of Palestine that is regarded as a place with the name YHW. This is likely the same semi-nomadic groups that worshiped a god some pronounce as “Jahve” (see: Early and late Freud pg.58 , The common origin of the God’s names Yahweh and Zeus Chapter 1, and The Urantia Book – Original English Version E) . This location seems to be of importance as it places the Shasu of YHW on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba, a region that includes the northern volcanic active regions of the Red Sea:
There is quite a few potential candidates for the location of Mt Sinai even though it is quite possible that Yahweh had been associated with all the volcanic activity in the region. Hence he doesn’t just merely reside in one place and seems to have a possible wide range of influence. Some suggest Mt. Sinai itself is in Arabia, but Mt. Sinai is most likely associated large in part with Mt. Thera. This giving the time frame in which Exodus was written, and according to its narrative of the turmoil in Egypt. Furthermore, this conflict seemingly makes it difficult to know which mountain was Mt. Sinai, thus placing it into obscurity among scholars. So despite the question of where Mt. Sinai is, one thing is clear when reading the Bible is that Abrahamic religions included various aspects of the worship of various mountain gods. These, of course, are what we see a lot of in Mesopotamia, and among the more notable being the Hittites, the Sumerians, and the Canaanites. Furthermore, Yahweh has also been suggested as a storm god in taking on the epithets of Ba’al, and thus giving Yewheh’s association to storms, thunder, and lightning. However, the storm god hypothesis is left wanting as such thought had required cutting out and separating these epithets and descriptions from those of earthquakes and other notable volcanic imagery. This assimilation of epithets doesn’t seem to stop there either as The shining mountain, Yahweh’s abode seems to have been the result of merging moon god worship with that of mountain god worship. This wouldn’t be implausible either giving how moon and mountain worship was among the most influential in ancient Mesopotamia. Thus Yahweh had become a war god of war known to be described as the “devouring fire”, and attested as the “eternal flame“ (Yahweh’s Breath Bible, Volume 2: Literal Strong’s Version). His eternal nature referenced within the following proto-Sinaitic mine inscription:
Mt. Sinai, the abode, the shining burning mountain of an eternal and ever flowing deity, for Yahweh may further be closely related to “Yahveh”…, as in “Ever Flowing”:
This description of Yahweh being eternal is obviously mythical, but the concept of an ever flowing god of the Mountains within volcanic imagery we have noted thus far makes it perhaps little more coherent as to the intended context. In a further study of this, I came across an article written by C.J. Humphrey at Cambridge University. He addressed the issue to which gives further support to an ever-flowing mountain god known as being the eternal flame:
C.J. Humphrey makes a very valid argument, and this includes how the sound of trumpets can logically be associated with such activity to which is a subject I will further get into in Chapter 3 regarding the voice of God. However, in brief, a trumpet blast is not only found in Exodus, it is but also found in various sections of the bible to which back reference the sound of the trumpet coming from the mountain. Examples being such as Isaiah 27:13, Zechariah 9:14, 1 Corinthians 15:52.. However, one of the more notable would be Revelations 8:7-13:
Revelations is usually the basis for the end of days, the apocalypse as popularly believed by many even though Revelations makes few references back to Exodus and reads far more as a volcanic natural disaster being anthropomorphized as the Lord who takes his throne on top of a mountain of fire, storm, and Earthquake. Such narratives are so descriptive that I can’t help but agree with C.J. Humphrey’s analysis in which further supports this hypothesis as scientifically reasonable for consideration. Thus Mt.Sinai is the mountain of God from where this god of war dwells.
However, the origin of Yahweh is a bit trickier than this since Yahweh may have derived in part from the Sumerian god “Sin”, to which if true, would tell us that Yahweh wasn’t simply a mountain god, but rather likely a product of combining moon and mountain god mythology, rituals, and oral traditions into the persona of Yahweh. So the question is if this invalidates Freud’s hypothesis, or if it strengthens it. Therefore in keeping these questions in mind, I noticed the moon god Sin has given some perspective on how Yahweh had perhaps become associated with Mt. Sinai. So now while Yah is perhaps referenced to the Egyptian moon god Yah as a loose cognate in pronunciation at best, but on further examination we can see this is not likely the case as Mount Sinai, the mountain in where Yahweh dwells, means “Moon Mountain“ in reference to the Arkadian, or Sumerian Moon GOD “Sin”. Thus below I have provided sources such as the Jewish Encyclopedia, the Journal of Biblical Literature vol. 84, and as well as sources in regards to El Shaddai who is sometimes called Amurru, and the “Lord of the Mountain” as referenced as he who dwells and inhabits a pure and shining mountain.
Furthermore, I find that Abraham’s father, or at least his grandfather had likely worshiped the moon god Sin at Ur as noted by Andrew F. Key in regards to Dr. Julius Lewy, professor of Semitic languages and biblical history at Hebrew Union College – Jewish Institute of Religion. Abraham’s connection is noted in Julius’s published paper “Traces Of The Moon God SIN Among The Early Israelites“. Further citation of the worship of the moon god Sin in respect to Mt. Sinai, Yahweh, and early Judaism can found in following sources as well:
Additionally, we also find the classical rabbinical literature makes note of the mountain having other associated names
Not only are these sources reinforcing Yahweh as a mountain god, they are also very supportive that Yahweh is a “moon mountain god” within the context of the volcanic imagery as their means of description for which they had no word for. But to complicate matters, I find that Yahweh also might not have originally much to do with El, or El Shaddai as Abraham had no knowledge of who or what Yahweh was. That sets the real possibility that El, El Shaddai, and El Elyon were usurped into the Persona of Yahweh as was likely the Moon God Sin by those subscribing to Yahweh. Though Yahweh may have some original connections to Ba’al to whom his attested to the name El Elyon in the Canaanite pantheon, I must consider at the same time this invokes a lot of confusion to the identity of this deity due to competing religions and cults. Hence such cults often used usurping as a means to take over and destroy their competition while absorbing their achievements, persona’s, and epithets. So to help unravel this confusion, I purpose the Yahwists were then perhaps an example of this by equating Yahweh with the likes of the head deities of the Canaanite pantheon as noted in Diss Ertationes By Città del ( p.176). Yahwists usurping EL in the Canaanite pantheon, or Ba’al and El Shaddai as appears to be the case in Exodus 6:2-3. This may be enough to reason that Yahwists indeed usurped El, El Shaddai, and many others into a monotheistic concept of strict Yahwism. Thus in regarding Yahweh’s deep connection to Ba’al, for example, we could perhaps make note of this and of Yahweh’s likely roots in regards to the Shasu of YHW. Therefore If we consider the possibility of the Hyksos eviction from Egypt being those of the Narrative of Exodus.., we end up with one clue to how Yahweh came to be the God of Judah. To this possibility is that the Hyksos had associated their Asiatic deity Ba’al Harran around a version of the Egyptian storm god Seth. The profound thing about this is that Ba’al Harran was interestingly the moon god “Sin”, the deity from which Mt Sinai is named after. Furthermore, the Hyksos may have also associated Ba’al Harran to include the Canaanite god El and the God El Shaddai as the god of Abraham as it is notable that Sin and El Shaddai were likely the same deities. This is an interesting theory, and this Sounds confusing, but in short, this would make Sin, Seth, and Ba’al perhaps a part of what became a good chunk of the persona of Yahweh and his epithets. This hypothesis derives from following sources regarding b’l(bl):
Ba’al and Sin are thus deities the Hyksos had previously associated to before taking up power in Egypt. This for which may in part have played a role as to why the Egyptians evicted them as foreign Rulers around 1560 BC. To further suggest, I would be inclined to say that living in Egypt for so long, they largely became rather infused with the Egyptian cultural beliefs to which may explain why they mixed their Asiatic pantheon with the Egyptian God Seth as noted in the book: The Hyksos Period in Egypt By Charlotte Booth.. Thus the Hyksos likely adapted their beliefs according to the lands they lived in, to which may also account for the anti-Egyptian rhetoric in the Narrative of Exodus as a post event account of their loss of power, a point in which I will go further in detail in Chapter 3. So giving the Yahwist monotheistic cult movement likely started to usurp the Canaanite pantheon into the persona of Yahweh , this may give some weight to the possible Hyksos origin of Yahweh in further regards to Moses having a connection with them, a connection possibly linked by the name Osarseph, as for he is cited as a figure of conflicting accounts, or an example of combined accounts in dealing with the Hyksos, Moses, the anti-Jewish sentiment in Egypt, and a pharaoh named Amenophis.
Furthermore, the Hyksos and the emergence of Yahweh in regards to the Shasu seem a likely possibility to further investigate and explore as the Shasu semi-nomadic tribes made up the pre-Israelites. The Hyksos were known as the rulers of foreign lands, and as chieftains of Syria and Canaan, and it would make sense they would return to their Asiatic homelands upon their eviction.:
Further evidence of this possibility deals with Sakir-Har, a Hyksos King who was one of the first three kings of the Hyksos Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt as noted on the door jam recently excavated in Egypt:
Sakir-Har’s name to appears to also be Canaanite in origin, and thus further lending support not only in the Mountain God hypothesis but the likelihood of Hyksos involvement in possible origin and rise of Yahweh:
Now it’s unknown if the Hyksos themselves introduced Yahweh through the combining or the associating of Egyptian gods with the Canaanite gods, or if another group or cult had within the sphere of influence between Egyptian and Canaanite cultures, but despite that obscurity, the possibility either scenario seems quite plausible in light of the evidence. What is more interesting is the compound Baelyah, or Baeliah to which may be an example of combining Egyptian moon GOD with the Canaanite worship of Ba’al, and possibly the Canaanite moon God Yarhik to which could likely be a cognate of Ba’alyah / Baeliah means literally “Baal is Yah” or ‘Master is Yah”. There is little actual evidence supporting this scenario, but in referencing back to Ba’al likely having been associated with the god of storms in Egypt, we can see the Hyksos had at least associated Seth with Ba’al, and Yawhsists having likely associated Ba’al with Yahweh as is noted in both the biblical lexicons, and a very interesting paper by Fred E. Woods on how Yahweh usurps Ba’al and becomes the God most high (El Elyon). So to start here I will reference the Lexicon and then present how that relates to a brief overview of Fred E Woods paper:
Hebrew / Biblical Lexicon:
The Lexicon is quite clear on Yahweh’s relation to Ba’al. Thus in the example above, we can reference Jeremiah 31:31-32:
To which can also be translated as the following:
It’s very confusing when knowing this while reading the bible to which is filled with rhetoric that attacks the worship of Ba’al. However, that makes sense in terms of the process of usurping since that is how it was sometimes done to take over the epithets and status of a particular deity competing for dominance and influence in the region. Much of which is probably associated with the geopolitical environment of the time. This usurping also includes absorbing a target deity’s persona into the deity you want to become the head of the Pantheon, or the only deity left standing for a shot at expanding the influence of your own cult movement. So to put some of that into perspective, I believe some of you might find this article a matter of interest:
- “Who Controls the Water? Yahweh vs. Baal”
Fred E. Woods Provo, Utah: Maxwell Institute
Abstract 1 & 2:
The highlighted context can also be sited in dealing directly with Yahweh in regards to Jeremiah 31: 31-32 and bā·‘al·tî. And that conflict between worshiping Ba’al and Yahweh was very much an issue in dealing with the Israelites. And the rivalry between Yam and Baal is very much like how we see Yahweh’s jealousy and hate for Ba’al as his biggest rival. Thus just like how Ba’al usurps Yam and becomes the GOD Most High, and the GOD of storms and sea, we see Yahweh usurping Ba’al in a very similar way. However, when we take the above and assess Yahweh with Ba’al and the Sumerian deity Sin, they have interesting paths in which we all have come to know about in regards to the nature of EL and Shaddai, what we have come to know in regards to being the father of the gods often depicted as the creator of all things. And these which interestingly get attributed to Yahweh as the Yahwist cult movement continued to usurp these deities into Yahweh’s persona. So we can see this connection here:
All of which we see get attributed to Yahweh. I thus have then come to see that the moon god Sin and Yahweh became associated to a “Moon Mountain”, a mountain we have come to know as Mt. Sinai. A mountain in descriptive volcanic imagery as the burning abode, or house of Yahweh. This very deity to whom is referred to as the “devouring fire”, and the “God of the Armies”.
So when we dig further we find more evidence of this as we move on to review and take a closer look at some of the other names being attributed to Yahweh, and among the Mesopotamian Gods, we have El Elyon and El Shaddai. These names are attested to the Canaanite and Amorite Pantheons, and they had long existed before the name Yahweh. This to which is strong evidence of a recent cult movement usurping the Sumerian, Canaanite, and Amorite GOD’s, and that Yahweh and El Shaddai are likely two separate deities altogether. And this is exactly what we see to have most likely been the case since the clues. Thus what I had come to find out is that El Elyon means “God Most High” while El Shaddai means “God of the Mountains”, And “God Almighty”, both of them being attested to the Canaanite gods EL and Ba’al. Thus taking in consideration of their meanings, I would say both El Elyon and El Shaddai may fit well with Freud’s hypothesis. Especially, this in my own perspective, one that plumes fire and smoke high into the atmosphere, forms land from the sea, causes storms, and represents an object or entity that can cause what would seem like biblical floods, or what regularly is depicted cleansing and destroying of the wicked with fire and brimstone. All imagery in which we can find attested to in the Bible and the Book of Enoch. Furthermore, El Shaddai was perhaps referred to as both God Almighty, and as the god of the mountains. Another important thing to note about El Shaddai is the Shin ” ש “ to which is the Hebrew alphabet letter for fire in Kabballah, or is translated directly as “tooth” in Aramaic/Hebrew. This symbol or letter is a root name and symbol for Shaddai. This to which is attested specifically as a name for the Semitic deity Amarru in which again reconnects us with the Moon God Sin:
This gave me a pretty good idea of Yahweh’s given relationship, and how he became associated with the “God of the Mountains”, and “God Almighty” through the process of assimilation. So not only is this deity associated with “GOD of my Father” in the Bible through assimilation but is also as a result equated to El Shaddai to whom is explicitly attested to the city of Shaddai. From this we can reference back, knowing upon Abraham’s arrival to the city from Ur, he had customarily taken up the worship of him as the Patron deity:
However, some of the strongest evidence of Yahwism usurping El Shaddai into the persona of Yahweh is that Yahweh very like originates as one of the sons of EL noted in the Hymns of the Psalms (see: Ugarit and the Bible). Essentially the Psalms are regarded as the Hymn’s of El and not the hymns of Yahweh. This purposes a major problem with the standing modern Christian belief that Yahweh and El Shaddai were as in the same deity giving the evidence shows us that the high court mentioned in the Bible is actually in reference to the divine council of the Canaanite Pantheon. In fact, the Psalms doesn’t make any sense unless we consider Yahweh as one of the Sons of EL, and for this reason, I will explain below to which perhaps shows how Yahwists likely attempted, in part, to establish and equate Yahweh as EL Shaddai. Thus to begin here, let us start with this well-known Line in Genesis about a man being created in the image of his creator(s):
Now apologetics like to claim this reference to “our” as a reference to angels, but in reality, there is no real academic evidence to support that claim, especially when this isn’t Yahweh, this is but rather EL, the Godhead of Canaan. It is thus more reasonable to suggest “our” is in reference to the diving court, the sons of EL. This especially when In the academic mainstream there is no difference between the Israelites and the Canaanites. Now referencing Genesis may sound ambiguous, but it becomes important when remembering that the Psalms are considered likely the hymns of El coupled with the following evidence concerning the dead sea scrolls, Deuteronomy 32, and further citations from the Psalms in which demonstrate Yahweh as not the Godhead of the divine court, but rather as one of the sons of EL bidding for the high seat as noted in the Ugarit Canaanite text in the following Sources:
This purposes major change in our understanding the Canaanite culture, and the origins of Yahweh as this is further supported directly in the Psalms itself:
Furthermore, the sons of EL are referenced as gods, the sons of EL and not angels or even monotheistic in reference to Yahweh what-so-ever. This follows further into the inheritance to which shouldn’t be there if we at all understand what an inheritance is. Meaning that in order to inherit something, it must be given to you by another. Usually by a Parent or Family member after they had passed away. This is pretty hard evidence that Yahweh is not EL Shaddai, but rather his son bidding for his seat as the title “Most High” of the divine court. The evidence for this has further collaborated in Deuteronomy as we can see when we compare the Dead Sea Scrolls with Deuteronomy 32:
From the dead sea scrolls:
This was of course as mentioned above as having been edited to what is currently found in Deuteronomy 32 : 8-9:
The attempt to usurp the Pantheon and Equate Yahweh with El (El Shaddai) is profound, and the summary of the above narrative is Yahweh essentially jockeying to take the high seat in the divine court while threatening to destroy the sons of El and the divine court to where he alone is the judge, jury, court, and the remaining and only GOD. Interestingly though this is similarly the sort of action we had seen attempted with the Egyptian pantheon during the Monotheism of Aten. Ahmose may perhaps be a model for Moses, and the idea of monotheism, as it is well understood, may have first sparked in Egypt while possibly having had been exported when the Hyksos were evicted from Egypt around 1560 BC.
The above is then perhaps direct evidence of the Yahwist monotheistic cult movement usurping the various Pantheons and GODs into the Persona of Yahweh. Especially giving the passage that claims Yahweh was the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in Exodus 6:2 – 6:3 as stated prior. I bring this back up because it begs the question of why they would need a passage to equate El and El Shaddai to Yahweh? This notation in the Bible appears to have been injected to attempt to clear up how Abraham had no knowledge of who Yahweh was. To me that raises a red flag, as in I would argue Yahweh most likely by the evidence should be regarded as separate from El Shaddai. At least not entirely giving perhaps the exception of Ba’al and the Sumerian moon god Sin when referencing the compound use of Baelyah / Baeliah to which translates to “Ba’al is Yah”, or “Master is Yah”. But even in this case, I would argue them separate distinct deities when going back and examining Yahweh as one of the 70 sons of EL, and that Yahwists likely usurped the persona of Ba’al into that of Yahweh.
However with that in mind, and referencing back to El Shaddai once again, there is the root word “shadad” (שדד). A root word that means to “over power“, or ” to destroy”. This comes into importance due in part to the Teachings of Kabballah wherein as the Shin is the “symbol or letter of fire”, often referred to as the “eternal flame” that also has a lot to do with purification of sin. Thus as discussed before, this belief of the eternal flame is said to contain and represent the spirit of GOD and is a prominent aspect of the Jewish and Christian faith. The Shin ” ש “ is also sometimes regarded as the symbol of the burning bush to which Yahweh speaks to Mosses from within the fire, as well as a symbol we often see in Greek Mythology regarding the Trident. Though despite all the symbolism, if we take into context many of the verses in the Bible regarding the nature of Yahweh, we can understand the Shin and the Shadad root to El shaddai to contextually mean, in regards to Yahweh’s volcanic wrath, “to overpower with fire” or “to destroy with fire”. Thus “Shin”, El Shaddai the mountain dweller:
The evidence continues to mount up as El Shaddai is inhabiting his mythical holy mountain, and playing his role in the Garden of Eden as I quote the Wiki here: “in the Syriac Christian writings of Ephrem the Syrian, who places Eden on an inaccessible mountaintop.”., protected by the Lord’s flaming sword”.
To scholars Eden’s location is unknown, but that is the sort of Mountain imagery we can continue to expect to see, and which is evidently reinforced regarding the divine god of the mountains:
The mountain of god, and the god of the mountains is a common and repeated theme throughout the entire bible. Yahweh should not be considered a storm god as some suggest, but rather in my opinion explicitly a mountain god giving the evidence and the fact that the Bible is very animate about it. Other examples in exodus make this point of contention rather obvious:
Exodus 19:17 is in regards to meeting GOD. Exodus 19:17 mentions standing at the foot of the mountain, and it’s relationship with Deuteronomy 4:11 here is to be noted in where everyone came near and stood at the foot of the mountain as it blazed with black clouds and deep darkness generally associated to erupting volcanoes:
Here meeting GOD seems very much to be meeting a Volcano Deity. One that is often angry, and often burns against those he is unhappy with:
This Yahweh, the “God of the armies”, The God that delivered the Israel people from Egypt, has the imagery of a mountain god of fire. Yahweh was to be seen as greater than all other gods, And in Genesis 12, in regards to the story of Abraham, Yahweh became the main god of worship, and regarded as the Greater of all other GOD’s of his time:
Powerful position yahweh will have come to be in, but despite this mighty position among the gods, the cult of Yahweh almost became extinct in around 597 – 538 BC after he was officially established as the god of Judah. Traditionally that meant the possibility of your god getting usurped and replaced with another by the conquering party as this was in the time period in which the Hebrews were exiled to Babylon when their Temple was destroyed. The GODs of this era were associated with territories of land, and after their defeat you get Yahwists wondering how they can continue to sing the song of Yahweh when exiled in a foreign land:
It becomes a question of survival, and they either adapt or get removed like many before them. Thus If it were not for The Second Isaiah, the cult of Yahweh would have gone extinct, and Christianity would either not exist or look very different today. This is the point where Monotheism really begins to hold and take root and favor the survival of the cult of Yahweh:
So in understanding the above, we come to find that all the different names for GOD are claimed by Yahwists, and that they are, according to them, all the same GOD. So In Exodus 6:2-3, as noted earlier, states that Yahweh and El Shaddai as being the same deity. And for credulity, they have Yahweh himself proclaim that he is. After all, who was going to question Yahweh?:
This is where perhaps monotheism solidifies and parts away from it’s polytheistic roots, smashing all the supposed false Idols including EL’s wife Asherah to which Yahweh was once associated to after being equated to “EL”. Asherah by the evidence was among the toughest ones for the monotheist movement to shake off. And to do that, all they thought they needed was the common male dominance mentality of the Kenites to where women are seen as weak and should obey the will of man. And thus at some point making Asherah a false idol, an idol that never really went away as we can see with Isis and the virgin Mary. So what all this means is that Judaism and Christianity were born from a monotheistic cult movement to which came from their polytheistic roots. These Yahwists are those who likely worshiped a Volcano fire god of war as the most powerful of all GODs, and as symbol of mans Power. And it’s no wonder why they had worshiped a Volcano as a GOD of the armies. All of this above gives a foundation for further evaluation, so looking at this in Exodus, the Deuteronomy, Psalms, and many others, I take a deeper stare into the flame wondering if it shall speak with the thundering voice of GOD: