Yahweh: A Volcano Fire God Of War?: Chapter 2


 Chapter Index:

Chapter 1: Wisdom In The Question
Chapter 2: God Of The Moon Mountain
Chapter 3: Exodus & The Voice Of God
Chapter 4: The Deuteronomy
Chapter 5: Plagues Of Egypt And The Nile Delta
Chapter 6: The Psalms
Chapter 7: Fire, Torment, And Human Sacrifice

Post note:
* This chapter is in the process of being updated..
As of 8-7-2014, I have made some minor spelling and grammar corrections. There are tons more, but I just don’t have the time to work on this project as much as I used to.
As of 8-29-2014, I added further source material in reference to the blast of the trumpet in support of C.J. Humphrey’s analysis of biblical descriptions of a volcanic event. I also made several changes to the first two paragraphs to better address the subject and reduce further redundancy. There is also another update coming concerning a newly published paper regarding this subject.
* As of 9-16-2014 – Fixed the following dead link: http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/religion/baal.htm
* As of 9-20-2014 – I tracked down the Sanskrit for Yahveh “Ever flowing”, and thus the citation has been added.
* As of 5-22-2015 – There is a glaring error I will be correcting… The Egyptian Storm god Seth is unlikely to be connected to Ba’al Harran (The Moon God Sin).. Seth is actually Connected to Ba’al Zaphon , a deity associated to Mt Zaphon (The Mount of Ba’al). Zaphon is likely connected to Mt Sinai (citations will be in the coming update), but I will have to look into that further.. What this means is that The Moon god Sin’s connection to Mt Sinai may actually have derived earlier than the Hyksos eviction from Egypt.., as in the time of Abraham since Abraham was an Amurrite from Ur who then made El Shaddai his Elohim.. Hence it is possible the merger took place here, and possibly in connection to Amurru “he who dwells on his shining mountain”.. Although Seth’s connection is in question, this might be remedied if Seth has anything to do with Thoth, and if so, Seth could be argued as a Moon Mountain god with the epithets of Storms.. But that is speculation at this point..

— Chapter 2 —
God Of The Moon Mountain

     The worship of Yahweh as a deity may have originated in the pre-Israelite people of the Levant region, or more specifically in Median. The Hebrew Bible mentions that this is where Moses meets God, and bring down from the fiery mount the 10 commandments. Then there is also an Egyptian inscription for which possibly relates Yahweh with the ShasuThe shasu are described as living south of Palestine that is regarded as a place with the name YHW. This is likely the same semi-nomadic groups that worshiped a god some pronounce as “Jahve” (see: Early and late Freud pg.58  , The common origin of the God’s names Yahweh and Zeus Chapter 1, and The Urantia Book – Original English Version E) . This location seems to be of importance as it places the Shasu of YHW on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba, a region that includes the northern volcanic active regions of the Red Sea:


     There is quite a few potential candidates for the location of Mt Sinai even though it is quite possible that Yahweh had been associated with all the volcanic activity in the region. Hence he doesn’t just merely reside in one place, and seems to have a possible wide range of influence. Some suggest Mt. Sinai itself is in Arabia, but Mt. Sinai is most likely associated large in part with Mt. Thera. This giving the time frame in which Exodus was written, and according to it’s narrative of the turmoil in Egypt. Furthermore, this conflict seemingly makes it difficult to know which mountain was Mt. Sinai,  thus placing it into obscurity among scholars. So despite the question of where Mt. Sinai is, one thing is clear when reading the Bible is that Abrahamic religions included various aspects of the worship of various mountain gods. These of course are what we see a lot of in Mesopotamia, and among the more notable being the Hittites, the Sumerians, and the Canaanites. Furthermore, Yahweh has also been suggested as a storm god in taking on the epithets of ba’al, and thus giving Yewheh’s association to storms, thunder, and lightning. However, the storm god hypothesis is left wanting as such thought had required cutting out and separating these epithets and descriptions from those of earth quakes and other notable volcanic imagery. This assimilation of epithets doesn’t seem to stop there either as The shining mountain, Yahweh’s abode, seems to have been the result of merging moon god worship with that of mountain god worship. This wouldn’t be implausible either giving moon and mountain worship were among the most influential in ancient Mesopotamia. Thus Yahweh had  become a war god of war known to be described as the “devouring fire”,  and attested as the “eternal flame (Yahweh’s Breath Bible, Volume 2: Literal Strong’s Version).  His eternal nature referenced within the following proto-Sinaitic mine inscription:

ʼlḏ‘lm understood to be vocalized as ʼil ḏū ‘ôlmi, ‘ʼĒl Eternal’ or ‘God Eternal’.

Mt. Sinai, the abode, the shining burning mountain of an eternal and ever flowing deity , for Yahweh may further be closely related to “Yahveh”…, as in “Ever Flowing”:

Yahweh is closely related to the old Sanskrit word Yahveh, meaning ‘ever flowing’
*    http://www.oldict.com/yahvat/
yahvat 2[ yahv’at ] mf ( [ ‘atI ] ) n. ever-flowing ( waters ) cf. RV.
Related words: yahva  Yahve  Yahveh
Related Yahva:
2[ yahv’a ] mf ( [ ‘I ] ) n. restless , swift , active ( applied to
Agni , Indra and Soma ) cf. RV.
—> continually moving or flowing ( applied to the waters ) cf. ib. (
= [ mahat ] cf. Sāy. )

This description of Yahweh being eternal is obviously mythical, but the concept of an ever flowing god of the Mountains within volcanic imagery we have noted thus far makes it perhaps little more coherent as to the intended context. In further study of this I came across an article written by C.J. Humphrey at Cambridge University. He addressed the issue to which gives further support to an ever flowing mountain god known as being the eternal flame:

MRS Bulletin / Volume 29 / Issue 04 / , pp 222-223
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2004
Published online by Cambridge University Press: January 2011
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/mrs2004.65
The old Testament describes Mount Sinai as “Flowing”, or “Melting”. (The Hebrew word used in Judges 5:5 nazal, which means “to flow” or “to melt.” Hence, nazalet means a runny nose.) To a scientist, a melting, flowing mountain can surely mean only one thing: lava flows. Hence, here we have a scientific fingerprint that Mount Sinai was indeed a volcano. One point puzzled me in the biblical description. The book of Exodus (19:16) says that the sound of a very loud trumpet blast came from the mountain. Is this poetic language or did the sound of a trumpet really come from Mount Sinai? I then found that the Roman historian Dio Cassius (Roman History, Book 66) described a loud trumpet blast coming from Mount Vesuvius when it erupted in AD 79 and covered Pompeii with lava and ash.
1. C.J. Humphreys,The Miracles of Exodus: A Scientist’s Discovery of the Extraordinary Natural Causes of the Biblical Stories (HarperCollins Publishers, New York, 2003)
2. C. Jarvis, Yesterday and Today in Sinai(W.Blackwood, Edinburgh, 1943)

     C.J. Humphrey makes a very valid argument, and this includes how the sound of trumpets can logically be associated with such activity to which is a subject I will further get into in Chapter 3 regarding the voice of  God. However in brief,  a trumpet blast is not only found in Exodus, it is but also found in various sections of the bible to which back reference the sound of the trumpet coming from the mountain. Examples being such as Isaiah 27:13,  Zechariah 9:14,  1 Corinthians 15:52.. However, one of the more notable would be revelations 8:7-13:

Revelations 8:7-13
At the first trumpet blast, hail and fire mixed with blood were dumped on earth. A third of the earth was scorched, a third of the trees, and every blade of green grass – burned to a crisp. 8The second Angel trumpeted. Something like a huge mountain blazing with fire was flung into the sea. A third of the sea turned to blood, 9 a third of the living sea creatures died, and a third of the ships sank. 10 The third Angel trumpeted. A huge Star, blazing like a torch, fell from Heaven, wiping out a third of the rivers and a third of the springs. 11 The Star’s name was Wormwood. A third of the water turned bitter, and many people died from the poisoned water. 12 The fourth Angel trumpeted. A third of the sun, a third of the moon, and a third of the stars were hit, blacked out by a third, both day and night in one-third blackout. 13 I looked hard; I heard a lone eagle, flying through Middle-Heaven, crying out ominously, “Doom! Doom! Doom to everyone left on earth! There are three more Angels about to blow their trumpets. Doom is on its way!”

Revelations is usually the basis for the end of days, the apocalypse as popularly believed by many even though Revelations makes few references back to Exodus and reads far more as a volcanic natural disaster being anthropomorphized as the lord who takes his throne on top of a mountain of fire, storm, and Earthquake. Such narratives are so descriptive that I can’t help but agree with C.J. Humphrey’s analysis in which further supports this hypothesis as scientifically reasonable for consideration. Thus Mt.Sinai is the mountain of God from where this god of war dwells.

However, the origin of Yahweh is a bit trickier than this since Yahweh may have derived in part from the Sumerian god “Sin”, to which if true, would tell us that Yahweh wasn’t simply a mountain god, but rather likely a product of combining moon and mountain god mythology, rituals, and oral traditions into the persona of Yahweh. So the question is if this invalidates Freud’s hypothesis, or if it strengthens it. Therefore in keeping these questions in mind, I noticed the moon god Sin has given some perspective on how Yahweh had perhaps become associated with Mt. Sinai. So now while Yah is perhaps referenced to the Egyptian moon god Yah as a loose cognate in pronunciation at best, but on further examination we can see this is not likely the case as Mount Sinai, the mountain in where Yahweh dwells,  means Moon Mountain in reference to the Arkadian, or Sumerian Moon GOD “Sin”.  Thus below I have provided sources such as the Jewish Encyclopedia, the Journal of Biblical Literature vol. 84, and as well as sources in regards to El Shaddai who is sometimes called Amurru, and the “lord of the Mountain” as referenced as he who dwells and inhabits a pure and shining mountain.

Furthermore, I find that Abraham’s father, or at least his grandfather had likely worshiped the moon god Sin at Ur as noted by Andrew F. Key in regards to Dr Julius Lewy, professor of Semitic languages and biblical history at Hebrew Union College – Jewish Institute of Religion. Abraham’s connection is noted in Julius’s published paper “Traces Of The Moon God SIN Among The Early Israelites“.   Further citation of the worship of the moon god Sin in respect to Mt. Sinai, Yahweh, and early Judaism can found in following sources as well:

1.)  According to biblical scholars, Sinai most likely derives from the name of Sin, the Semitic lunar deity.[a][b] In the Hasidic tradition, the name Sinai derives from “sin-ah,” (meaning hatred), in reference to the other nations hating the Jews out of jealousy, due to the Jews being the ones to receive the divine laws.[c]
a. ↑ Cheyne and Black, Encyclopedia Biblica.
b. ↑ Joseph Jacobs, M. Seligsohn and Wilhelm Bacher, “Mount Sinai,”Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
c. “This Land is My Land: A Breslov Perspective on the Holy Land,” Breslov Research Institute. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
d. Easton’s Biblical Dictionary – Biblestudytools.com
e. Holman Bible Dictionary – Studylight.org
f. The Oxford History of the Biblical world
g. OxfordReference.com
2.)  Horeb is thought to mean glowing/heat, which seems to be a reference to the sun, while Sinai may have derived from the name of Sin, the Sumerian deity of the moon,[1][2] and thus Sinai and Horeb would be the mountain of the moon and sun, respectively.[1]
1 “Mount Horeb”. Jewish Encyclopedia.
2 Matthew Black and H. H. Rowley, ed. (1963). “Exodus”. Peake’s Commentary on the Bible (second edition ed.). Thomas Nelson. pp. section 178c. 

Additionally, we also find the classical rabbinical literature makes note of the mountain having other associated names

Har ha-Elohim (הר האלהים), meaning “the mountain of God” or “the mountain of the gods”[7]2. Har Bashan (הר בשן), meaning “the mountain of Bashan“; however, Bashan is interpreted in rabbinical literature as here being a corruption of beshen, meaning “with the teeth”, and argued to refer to the sustenance of mankind through the virtue of the mountain[7]3. Tūr Sīnāʾ / Tūr Sīnīn (طور سيناء / سينين), is the term that appears in most Islamic sources, including the Qur’an, and it means, “The mount of Sinai”.[8][9][10]Jabal Mūsa (جبل موسى), is another term that appears in Islamic sources, and it means, “The Mountain of Moses”.[7]
Additional Sources:
1. ^ abcdefghijkJewish Encyclopedia
2. and Gerhard Andreas Herklots (Oxford University) discuss in the glossary “Koh-e-Toor” and indicates it as an alternative name for Mount Sinai, written 1832.
3. From the “World is my Village,” by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, where he relates the story of Moses using Koh-e-Toor not Mount Sinai. Same story, different name.
From the Pakistani Daily Times, November 30, 2008, where the author indicates a translation of Koh-e-Toor to be Mount Sinai.

     Not only are these sources reinforcing Yahweh as a mountain god, they are also very supportive that Yahweh is a “moon mountain god” within the context of the volcanic imagery as their means of description for which they had no word for. But to complicate matters, I find that Yahweh also might not have originally much to do with  El, or El Shaddai as Abraham had no knowledge of who or what Yahweh was.  That sets the real possibility that El, El shaddia, and El Elyon were usurped into the Persona of Yahweh as was likely the moon God Sin by those subscribing to Yahweh.  Though Yahweh may have some original connections to Ba’al to whom his attested to the name El Elyon in the Canaanite pantheon, I must consider at the same time this invokes a lot of confusion to the identity of this deity due to competing religions and cults. Hence such cults often used usurping as a means to takeover and destroy their competition while absorbing their achievements, persona’s, and epithets. So to help unravel this confusion, I purpose the Yahwists were then perhaps an example of this by equating Yahweh with the likes of the head deities of the Canaanite pantheon as noted in Diss Ertationes By Città del ( p.176). Yahwists usurping EL in the Canaanite pantheon, or Ba’al and El Shaddai as this specifically appears to be the case in Exodus 6:2-3. This may be enough to reason that Yahwists indeed usurped El, El Shaddai, and many others into a monotheistic concept of strict Yahwism.  Thus in regarding Yahweh’s deep connection to Ba’al, for example, we could perhaps make note of this and of Yahweh’s likely roots in regards to the Shasu of YHW. Therefore If we consider the possibility of the Hyksos eviction from Egypt being those of the Narrative of Exodus.., we end up with one clue to how Yahweh came to be the God of Judah. To this possibility is that the Hyksos had associated their Asiatic deity Ba’al Harran around a version of the Egyptian storm god Seth. The profound thing about this is that Ba’al Harran was interestingly the moon god “Sin”, the deity from which Mt Sinai is named after. Furthermore, the Hyksos may have also associated Ba’al Harran to include the Canaanite god El, and the god El Shaddai as the god of Abraham as it is notable that Sin and El Shaddai were likely the same deity. This is an interesting theory, and this Sounds confusing, but in short this would make Sin, Seth, and Ba’al perhaps a part of what became a good chunk of the persona of Yahweh and his epithets. This hypothesis derives from following sources regarding b’l(bl):

1.) In later ancient Near East times, the various ba’alim developed astral overtones, which were primarily solar in nature,41 but which could also be lunar. Even in post-Hellenistic times, we see this phenomenon continue to take place. A votary inscription in Harran devoted to the moon god Sin calls that god the “Baal of Harran.”42
[41] – See e.g. F.M. Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, n. 13, p. 7, who notes the equivalence of Baal Shamen with Zeus Helios, a solar deity, in Nabataean inscriptions.
[42] – Teixidor, op. cit., p. 43 

Their chief deity was the Egyptian storm and desert god, Seth, whom they identified with an Asiatic storm god
^“Hyksos (Egyptian dynasty)”Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 September 2012.


3) http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/religion/baal.htm
Baal, Egyptian ,[1] originally a Canaanite storm and fertility god, was brought to Egypt by the Hyksos.[2] Mentioned first by Amenhotep II [3] the god found few adherents among the native kings before the 19th dynasty, having been a major deity of the Hyksos enemies, but he had entered the pantheon of Peru-nefer near Memphis [4] by the reign of Thutmose III and his cult was well established under the 18th dynasty.
His importance grew under Ramses II when he rose to prominence as Seth-Baal, but his cult declined at the beginning of the first millennium BCE when Seth fell from favor and was more and more considered to be wholly evil.[5]
[1] transliteration bar; Wb 1, 447.10-12
[2] Lurker 2004, p.27
[3] Cornelius 1994
[4] Burkard & Thissen 2003, p.61
[5] Gruenwald et al. 1994, pp.60f
Additional Sources:
[6.] http://www.academia.edu/239327/Seth_is_Baal
[7.] Dating the War of the Kyksos  by  pg . 17-20
[8.] http://www.academia.edu/2414447/Dating_the_war_of_the_Hyksos

      Ba’al and Sin are thus deities the Hyksos had previously associated to before taking up power in Egypt. This for which may in part have played a role as to why the Egyptians evicted them as foreign Rulers around 1560 BC. To further suggest, I would be inclined to say that living in Egypt for so long, they largely became rather infused with the Egyptian cultural beliefs to which may explain why they mixed their Asiatic pantheon with the Egyptian God Seth as noted in the book:  The Hyksos Period in Egypt By Charlotte Booth.. Thus the Hysksos likely adapted their beliefs according to the lands they lived in, to which may also account for the anti-Egyptian rhetoric in the Narrative of Exodus as a post event account of their loss of power, a point in which I will go further in detail in Chapter 3. So giving the Yahwist monotheistic cult movement likely started to usurp the Canaanite pantheon into the persona of Yahweh , this may give some weight to he possible Hyksos origin of Yahweh in further regards to Moses having a connection with them, a connection possibly linked by the name Osarseph,  as for he is cited as a figure of conflicting accounts, or an example of combined accounts in dealing with the Hykos, Moses, the anti-Jewish sentiment in Egypt, and a pharaoh named Amenophis.

     Furthermore, the Hyksos and the emergence of Yahweh in regards to the shasu seem a likely possibility to further investigate and explore as the shasu semi-nomadic tribes  made up the pre-Israelites. The Hyksos were known as the rulers of foreign lands, and as chieftains of Syria and Canaan, and it would make sense they would return to their Asiatic homelands upon their eviction.:

The origin of the term “Hyksos” derives from the Egyptian expression heka khasewet (“rulers of foreign lands”), used in Egyptian texts such as the Turin King List to describe the rulers of neighbouring lands. This expression begins to appear as early as the late Old Kingdom in Egypt, referring to various Nubian chieftains, and in the Middle Kingdom, referring to the Semitic chieftains of Syria and Canaan.

Further evidence of this possibility deals with Sakir-Har, a Hyksos King who was one of the first three kings of the Hyksos Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt as noted on the door jam recently excavated in Egypt:


The obscure Hyksos king, Sakir-Har, was discovered in an excavated door jamb from Tell el-Dab’a of Ancient Egypt by Manfred Bietak in the 1990s. His titulary (Nebti and Golden Falcon names, as well as his nomen) appear on door jamb Cairo TD-8316.[1]According to Kim Ryholt‘s 1997 book on the Second Intermediate Period, the door jamb reads as,
…….   [Horus who… …], The possessor of the Wadjet and Nekhbet diadems who subdues the bow people. The Golden Falcon who establishes his boundary. The heka-khawaset, Sakir-Har. [2][3]
The door jamb confirms the identity of Sakir-Har as one of the first three kings of the Hyksos Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt. His immediate successor would have been the powerful Hyksos ruler, Khyan, if he was the third Hyksos king of this dynasty, but Sakir-Har’s precise position within this dynasty has not yet been established. The name Sakir-Har translates as ‘Reward of Har.’[4]
1^ Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C., Museum Tuscalanum Press, 1997. p.120
2^ Ryholt, p.123
3^ Charlotte Booth, The Hyksos period in Egypt, A Shire Egyptology Book, 2005. p.31
4^ Ryholt, pp.127-128

Sakir-Har’s name to appears to also be Canaanite in origin, and thus further lending support not only in the Mountain god hypothesis, but the likelihood of Hyksos involvement in possible origin and rise of Yahweh:

the name Sakir-Har is evidently a theophorous name compounded with hr, Canaanite harru, [or] ‘mountain.’ This sacred or deified mountain is attested in at least two other names, both West Semitic (Yaqub-Har and Anat-Har), and so there is reason to suspect that the present name also may be West Semitic. The element skr seems identical to śkr, ‘to hire, to reward,’ which occurs in several Amorite names. Assuming that śkr takes a nominal form as in the names sa-ki-ru-um and sa-ka-ŕu-um, the name should be transliterated as either Sakir-Har or Sakar-Har. The former two names presumably mean ‘the Reward.’ Accordingly, the name here under consideration would mean ‘Reward of Har.’[10]
Ryholt, pp.127–128 

      Now it’s unknown if the Hyksos themselves introduced Yahweh through the combining or the associating of Egyptian gods with the Canaanite gods, or if another group or cult had within the sphere of influence between Egyptian and Canaanite cultures, but despite that obscurity the possibility either scenario seems quite plausible in light of the evidence.  What is more interesting is the compound Baelyah, or baeliah to which may be an example of combining Egyptian moon GOD with the Canaanite worship of Ba’al, and possibly the Canaanite moon God Yarhik to which could  likely be a cognate of  Ba’alyah / Baeliah means literally “Baal is Yah” or ‘Master is Yah”. There is little actual evidence supporting this scenario, but in referencing back to Ba’al likely having been associated to the god of storms in Egypt, we can see the Hysksos had at least associated seth with Ba’al, and Yawhsists having having likely associated Ba’al with Yahweh as is noted in both the biblical lexicons, and a very interesting paper by Fred E. Woods  on how Yahweh usurps Ba’al and becomes the god most high (El Elyon). So to start here I will reference the Lexicon and then present how that relates to a brief overview of Fred E Woods paper:

Hebrew / Biblical Lexicon:

* Ba’al: Baal Original Word: גַּ֫עַל
Part of Speech: Proper Name
Transliteration: Ba’al Phonetic Spelling: (bah’-al)
Short Definition: Baal
* BEALIAH / Baalyah be-a-li’-a (be`alyah, “Yahweh is Lord,” compare HPN, 144, 287): Bealiah, formerly a friend of Saul, joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:5). Bealiah (גְּעַלְיָה beh-al-yaw) or Baalyah, a Benjamite, was one of David‘s thirty heroes who went to Ziklag, mentioned in Ch1  12:5. The name derives from Baal and Yah. Ba•’al (Baal)—the chief male god of the Phoenicians and Canaanites. The word means “lord,” “master,” and by extension, “husband.” Ro 11:4. Ba•’al-B’rit (Baal-berith)
* SH1184 1184 Ba`aley Yhuwdah bah-al-ay’ yeh-hoo-daw’ from the plural of 1167 and 3063; masters of Judah; Baale-Jehudah, a place in Palestine:–Baale of Judah. see SH1167 see SH3063 SH1183 1183 B`alyah beh-al-yaw’ from 1167 and 3050; Jah (is) master; Bealjah, an Israelite:–Bealiah. see SH1167 see SH3050
http://biblesuite.com/hebrew/1180.htm Word Origin from baal with pronoun suff. Definition “my Baal,” a symbolic name for Yah NASB Translation Baali (1).

The Lexicon is quite clear on Yahweh’s relation to Ba’al. Thus in example we can reference  Jeremiah 31:31-32:


To which can also be translated as the following:

“Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which My covenant they brake, although I was bā·‘al·tîL unto them, saith Yahweh.”

     It’s very confusing when knowing this while reading the bible to which is filled with rhetoric that attacks the worship of  Ba’al. However that makes sense in terms of the process of usurping since that is how it was sometimes done to take over the epithets and status of a particular deity competing for dominance and influence in the region. Much of which is probably associated to the geopolitical environment of the time. This usurping also includes absorbing a target deity’s persona into the deity you want to become the head of the Pantheon, or the only deity left standing for a shot at expanding influence of your own cult movement. So to put some of that into perspective, I believe some of you might find this article a matter of interest:

Abstract 1 & 2:

1.)  As the Israelites settled in the land of Canaan, clashes over religious beliefs and practices developed with other inhabitants of the land. Baalism, the belief in the Canaanite god of water and storm, became a threat to the true belief in Yahweh (Jehovah). This paper is an investigation of the implicit polemical usage of water and storm language in the Deuteronomic History (hereafter referred to as DH).1 The DH consists of the book of Deuteronomy as well as what is referred to in the Hebrew Bible as the Former Prophets (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings).2 Many passages in the Deuteronomic corpus instructed Israel that Yahweh, not Baal, held the power over water, storm, and prosperity in the land and were thereby launching a literary attack against Baalism. This paper will proceed by first examining Baalism; then I will give a brief overview of the role of the book of Deuteronomy in the DH. Finally, I will analyze and summarize various passages in the remaining Deuteronomic corpus of Joshua—2 Kings.
2.)  The most active deity both at Ugarit and in the Canaanite pantheon of the Hebrew Bible is Baal, the god of water and storm. Although his proper name is Hadad, he is most often referred to by the title baal, a common Semitic noun meaning “owner, master, husband or lord.”7

     The highlighted context can also be sited in dealing directly with Yahweh in regards to Jeremiah 31: 31-32 and bā·‘al·tî. And that conflict between worshiping Ba’al and Yahweh was very much an issue in dealing with the Israelites. And the rivalry between Yam and Baal is very much like how we see Yahweh’s jealously and hate for Ba’al as his biggest rival. Thus just like how Ba’al usurps Yam and becomes the GOD Most High, and the GOD of storms and sea, we see Yahweh usurping Ba’al in a very similar way.  However, when we take the above and assess Yahweh with Ba’al and the Sumerian deity Sin, they have interesting paths in which we all have come to know about in regards to the nature of EL and Shaddai, what we have come to to know in regards to being the father of the gods often depicted as the creator of all things. And these which interestingly get attributed to Yahweh as the Yahwist cult movement continued to usurp these deities into Yahweh’s persona. So we can see this connection here:

Sin  (Akkadian: Su’en, Sîn) or Nanna (SumerianDŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian mythology of AkkadAssyria and Babylonia. Nanna is a Sumerian deity, the son of Enlil and Ninlil, and became identified with Semitic Sin. The two chief seats of Nanna’s/Sin’s worship were Ur in the south of Mesopotamia and Harran in the north.He is commonly designated as En-zu, which means “lord of wisdom”. During the period (c.2600-2400 BCE) that Ur exercised a large measure of supremacy over the Euphrates valley, Sin was naturally regarded as the head of the pantheon. It is to this period that we must trace such designations of Sin as “father of the gods”, “chief of the gods”, “creator of all things”, and the like.

     All of which we see get attributed to Yahweh. I thus have then come to see that the moon god Sin and Yahweh became associated to a “Moon Mountain”, a mountain we have come to know as Mt. Sinai. A mountain in descriptive volcanic imagery as the burning abode, or house of Yahweh. This very deity to whom is referred to as the “devouring fire”, and the “God of the Armies”.

So when we dig further we find more evidence of this as we move on to review and take a closer look at some of the other names being attributed to Yahweh, and among the Mesopotamian Gods we have El Elyon and El Shaddai. These names are attested to the Canaanite and Amorite Pantheons, and they had long existed before the name Yahweh. This to which is strong evidence of a recent cult movement usurping the Sumerian, Canaanite, and Amorite GOD’s, and that Yahweh and El Shaddai are likely separate deities all together.  And this is exactly what we see to have most likely be the case since the clues. Thus what I had come to find out is that El Elyon means “God Most High” while El Shaddai means “God of the Mountains”, And “God Almighty”, both of them being attested to the Canaanite gods EL and Ba’al. Thus taking in consideration of their meanings, I would say both El Elyon and El Shaddai  may fit well with Frued’s hypothesis.  Especially, this in my own perspective, one that plumes fire and smoke high into the atmosphere, forms land from sea, causes storms, and represents an object or entity that can cause what would seem like biblical floods, or what regularly is depicted cleansing and destroying of the wicked with fire and brimstone. All imagery in which we can find attested to in the bible and the Book of Enoch..  Furthermore, El Shaddai was perhaps referred to as both god almighty, and as god of the mountains. Another important thing to note about El shaddai is the Shin ” ש “ to which is the Hebrew alphabet letter for fire in Kabballah, or is translated directly as “tooth” in Aramaic/Hebrew  . This symbol or letter is a root name and symbol for Shaddai. This to which is attested specifically as a name for the Semetic deity Amarru in which again reconnects us with the Moon God Sin:

Shaddai is a derivation of a Semitic stem that appears in the Akkadian shadû (“mountain”) and shaddā`û or shaddû`a
“mountain dweller”, one of the names of Amurru. Amurru/Martu was probably a western Semitic god originally. He is sometimes described as a ‘shepherd’ or as a storm god, and as a son of the sky-god Anu. He is sometimes called bêlu šadī or bêl šadê, ‘lord of the mountain’; dúr-hur-sag-gá sikil-a-ke, ‘He who dwells on the pure mountain’; and kur-za-gan ti-[la], ‘who inhabits the shining mountain’. In Cappadocian Zinčirli inscriptions he is called ì-li a-bi-a, ‘the god of my father‘.[1] Accordingly, it has been suggested by L. R. Bailey (1968) and Jean Ouelette (1969), that this Bêl Šadê might be the same as the Biblical ’Ēl Šaddāi who is the God of AbrahamIsaac, and Jacob in the “Priestly source” of narrative, according to the documentary hypothesis. Amurru also has storm-god features. Like Adad, Amurru bears the epithet ramān ‘thunderer’, and he is even called bāriqu ‘hurler of the thunderbolt’ and Adad ša a-bu-be ‘Adad of the deluge’. Yet his iconography is distinct from that of Adad, and he sometimes appears alongside Adad with a baton of power or throwstick, while Adad bears a conventional thunderbolt. Amurru’s wife is sometimes the goddess Ašratum (see Asherah) who in northwest Semitic tradition and Hittite tradition appears as wife of the god Ēl which suggests that Amurru may indeed have been a variation of that god. If Amurru was identical with Ēl, it would explain why so few Amorite names are compounded with the name Amurru, but so many are compounded with Il; that is, with Ēl.
1.”The Targum from the Beginnings: “Tablet” Retrieved on September 12, 2010
2.  Bailey, L. R. (1968). “Israelite ’Ēl šadday and Amorite Bêl šadê”, Journal of Biblical Literature 87, 434–38.
3.  Cross, Frank Moore (1973). Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, pp. 10, 57–58. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-09176-0.
4. Jordon, Michael. Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002
5. Ouellette, Jean (1969). “More on ’Ēl Šadday and Bêl Šadê”, Journal of Biblical Literature 88, 470f.
6. ETSCL: Narratives featuring deities: Other deities, including “The Marriage of Martu”.
7. Iconography of Amurru (PDF-article)
8. Amurru in Encyclopedia

This gave me a pretty good idea of Yahweh’s given relationship, and how he became associated as the “God of the Mountains”, and “God Almighty”  through the process of assimilation.  So not only is this deity associated with “GOD of my Father” in the bible through assimilation, but is also as a result equated to El Shaddai to whom is explicitly attested to the city of Shaddai. From this we can reference back, knowing upon Abraham’s arrival to the city from Ur,  he had customarily taken up worship of him as the Patron deity:

Shaddai was a late Bronze Age Amorite city on the banks of the Euphrates river, in northern Syria, as well as the name, or a signifying epithet of a West Semitic deity, whose name was attached by the Hebrews to that of El as one of the names of God in Judaism. The site of the ruin-mound of Shaddai is called Tell eth-Thadyen, “Thadyen” being the modern Arabic rendering of the original West Semitic “Shaddai”. It has been conjectured that El Shaddai was therefore the “god of Shaddai”. According to Exodus 6:2, 3, Shaddai was the name by which God was known to AbrahamIsaac and Jacob. Shaddai thus being associated in tradition with Abraham

However, some of the strongest evidence of Yahwism usurping El Shaddai into the persona of Yahweh is that Yahweh very like originate as one of the sons of EL noted in the Hymns of the Psalms (see: Ugarit and the Bible). Essentially the Psalms are regarded as the Hymn’s of El and not the hymns of Yahweh. This purposes a major problems with the standing modern Christian belief that Yahweh and El Shaddai were as in the same deity giving the evidence shows us that the high court mentioned in the bible is actually in reference to the divine council of the Canaanite Pantheon. In fact the Psalms doesn’t make any sense unless we consider Yahweh as one of the Sons of EL, and for this reason I will explain below to which perhaps shows how Yahwists likely attempted, in part, to establish and equate Yahweh as EL Shaddai,. Thus to begin here, lets start with this well known Line in Genesis about man being created in the image of his creator(s):

26 Then God said, Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.

Now apologetics like to claim this reference to “our”  as a reference to angels, but in reality there is no real academic evidence to support that claim, especially when this isn’t Yahweh, this is but rather EL, the god head of Canaan. It is thus more reasonable to suggest “our” is in reference to the diving court, the sons of EL. This especially when In the academic mainstream there is no difference between the Israelites and the Canaanites. Now referencing Genesis may sound ambiguous, but it becomes important when remembering that the Psalms are considered likely the hymns of El coupled with the following evidence concerning the dead sea scrolls , Deuteronomy 32, and further citations from the Psalms in which demonstrate Yahweh as not the God head of the divine court, but rather as one of the sons of EL bidding for the high seat as noted in the Ugarit Canaanite text in the following Sources:

The Israelites in history and tradition Niels Peter Lemche – 1998 – 246 “Maybe also the Ugaritic passage KTU 1.1:IV:14-15 should be included in the discussion: sm . bny . yw . ilt, translated by Mark S. Smith in Simon B. Parker, ed., Ugaritic Narrative Poetry (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1997), 89 “of the son of god, Yahweh.”
Thus translated as: “son of EL” as this Ugarit Canaanite text (KTU 1.1IV 14) shows: sm . bny . yw . ilt: “The name of the son of god, Yahweh.”

This purposes major change in our understanding the Canaanite culture, and the origins of Yahweh as this is further supported directly in the Psalms itself:

Psalm 82:1:
“Ascribe to Yahweh, O sons of EL, ascribe to Yahweh glory and strength.”

Psalm 89:6:
“For who in the skies can be compared to Yahweh, who among the sons of EL is like Yahweh

Psalm 82:
A psalm of Asaph.
God presides in the great assembly; he gives judgment among the gods2 How long will you defend the unjust and show partiality to the wicked? Selah
3 Defend the cause of the weak and fatherless; maintain the rights of the poor and oppressed. 4 Rescue the weak and needy;
deliver them from the hand of the wicked. 5 They know nothing, they understand nothing.
They walk about in darkness; all the foundations of the earth are shaken. 6 I said,You are gods;
you are all sons of the Most High7 But you will die like mere men; you will fall like every other ruler. 8 Rise up, O God, judge the earth, for all the nations are your inheritance.

Furthermore, the sons of EL are referenced as gods, the sons of EL and not angels or even monotheistic in reference to Yahweh what-so-ever. This follows further into the inheritance to which shouldn’t be there if we at all understand what an inheritance is. Meaning that in order to inherit something, it must be given to you by another. Usually by a Parent or Family member after they had passed away. This is pretty hard evidence that Yahweh is not EL Shaddai, but rather his son bidding for his seat as the Most High of the divine court. The evidence for this has been further collaborated in Deuteronomy as we can see when we compare the Dead Sea Scrolls with Deuteronomy 32:

From the dead sea scrolls:

“When El Elyon gave to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of men, he fixed the bounds of the peoples according to the number of the sons of God (El). For Yahweh’s portion is his people, Jacob his allotted inheritance.”

This was of course as mentioned above as having been edited to what is currently found in Deuteronomy 32 : 8-9:

“When the Most High (EL ELyon) divided their inheritance to the nations,
When He separated the sons of Adam men, He set the boundaries of the peoples According to the number of the children of Israel EL. For the LORD’s (Yahweh’s) portion is His people; Jacob is the place of His inheritance.”

The attempt to usurp the Pantheon and Equate Yahweh with El (El Shaddai) is profound, and the summary of the above narrative is Yahweh essentially jockeying to take the high seat in the divine court while threatening to destroy the sons of El and the divine court to where he alone is the judge, jury, court, and the remaining and only GOD. Interestingly though this is similarly the sort of action we had seen attempted with the Egyptian pantheon during the Monotheism of Aten. Ahmose may perhaps be a model for Moses, and the ideal of monotheism, as it is well understood, may have first sparked in Egypt while possibly having had been exported when the Hyksos were evicted from Egypt around 1560 BC..

The above is then perhaps direct evidence of the Yahwist monotheistic cult movement usurping the various Pantheons and GODs into the Persona of Yahweh.  Especially giving the passage that claims Yahweh was the god of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in Exodus 6:2 – 6:3 as state prior. I bring this back up because it begs the question of why they would need a passage to equate  El, and El Shaddai  to Yahweh? This notation in the bible appears to have been injected to attempt to clear up how Abraham had no knowledge of who Yahweh was. To me that raises a red flag, as in I would argue Yahweh most likely by the evidence should be regarded as separate from El Shaddai . At least not entirely giving perhaps the exception of Ba’al and the Sumerian moon god Sin when referencing the compound use of Baelyah / Baeliah to which translates to “Ba’al is Yah”, or “Master is Yah”. But even in this case I would argue them separate distinct deities when going back and examining Yahweh as one of the 70 sons of EL, and that Yawhists likely usurped the persona of Ba’al into that of Yahweh.

However with that in mind, and referencing back to El Shaddia once again, there is the root word “shadad” (שדד). A root word that means to  “over power“, or ” to destroy”.  This comes into importance due in part to the Teachings of Kabballah where in as the Shin is the “symbol or letter of fire” , often referred to as the “eternal flame” that also has a lot to do with purification of sin.  Thus as discussed before, this belief of the eternal flame is said to contain and represent the spirit of GOD, and is a prominent aspect in the Jewish and Christian faith.  The Shin ” ש “ is also sometimes regarded as the symbol of the burning bush to which Yahweh speaks to mosses from within the fire, as well as a symbol we often see in Greek Mythology regarding the Trident.  Though despite all the symbolism, if we take into context many of the verses in the bible regarding the nature of Yahweh, we can understand the Shin and the  Shadad root to El shaddai to contextually mean, in regards to Yahweh’s volcanic wrath, “to overpower with fire” or “to destroy with fire”.  Thus “Shin”,  El Shaddai the mountain dweller:

Shin stands for the word Shaddai, a name for God. Because of this, a kohen (priest) forms the letter Shin with his hands as he recites the Priestly Blessing.  The letter Shin is often inscribed on the case containing a mezuzah, a scroll of parchment with Biblical text written on it. The text contained in the mezuzah is the Shema Yisrael prayer, which calls the Israelites to love their god with all their heart, soul and strength. The mezuzah is situated upon all the doorframes in a home or establishment. Sometimes the whole word Shaddai will be written. Quote: Genesis 17:1: And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect. (The Hebrew word used here is “shaddai”)

A. almighty, most powerful B. Shaddai, the Almighty (of God) C. God of the Mountains D. Shaddai is a derivation of a Semitic stem that appears in the Akkadian shadû (“mountain”) and shaddā`û or shaddû`a (“mountain-dweller”)

The evidence continues to mount up as El Shaddai is inhabiting his mythical holy mountain, and playing his role in the Garden of Eden as I quote the Wiki here:  “in the Syriac Christian writings of Ephrem the Syrian, who places Eden on an inaccessible mountaintop.”., protected by the Lord’s flaming sword”.

Genesis 3:24
23therefore the LORD God sent him out from the garden of Eden, to cultivate the ground from which he was taken. 24So He drove the man out; and at the east of the garden of Eden He stationed the cherubim and the flaming sword which turned every direction to guard the way to the tree of life.

 To scholars Eden’s location is unknown, but that is the sort of Mountain imagery we can continue to expect to see, and which is evidently reinforced regarding the divine god of the mountains:

“God of the mountains,” referring to the Mesopotamian divine mountain.[1] The term was one of the patriarchal names for the tribal god of the Mesopotamians.[1] In Exodus 6:3, El Shaddai is identified explicitly with the God of Abraham and with YHWH.[1] The term appears chiefly in the Torah. This could also refer to the Israelite camp’s stay at Mount Sinai where God gave Moses the Ten Commandments.”
a b c Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.

The mountain of god, and the god of the mountains is a common and repeated theme throughout the entire bible. Yahweh should not be considered a storm god as some suggest, but rather in my opinion explicitly a mountain god giving the evidence and the fact that the Bible is very animate about it. Other examples in exodus make this point of contention rather obvious:

Exodus 18:5 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, together with Moses’ sons and wife, came to him in the wilderness, where he was camped near the mountain of God.
Exodus 19:3 
Then Moses went up to God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain and said, “This is what you are to say to the descendants of Jacob and what you are to tell the people of Israel:
Exodus 19:17
 Then Moses led the people out of the camp to meet with God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain. (see also Deuteronomy 4:11)  
Exodus 24:17 
To the Israelites the glory of the LORD looked like a consuming fire on top of the mountain.

      Exodus 19:17 is in regards to meeting GOD. Exodus 19:17 mentions standing at the foot of the mountain, and it’s relationship with Deuteronomy 4:11 here is to be noted in where everyone came near and stood at the foot of the mountain as it blazed with black clouds and deep darkness generally associated to erupting volcanoes:

Deuteronomy 4:11
11 You came near and stood at the foot of the mountain while it blazed with fire to the very heavens, with black clouds and deep darkness.

Here meeting GOD seems very much to be meeting a Volcano Deity. One that is often angry, and often burns against those he is unhappy with:

14 Then the LORD’s anger burned against Moses and he said, “What about your brother, Aaron the Levite? I know he can speak well. He is already on his way to meet you, and he will be glad to see you.

     This Yahweh, the “God of the armies”, The God that delivered the Israel people from Egypt, has the imagery of a mountain god of fire. Yahweh was to be seen as greater than all other gods,  And in Genesis 12, in regards to the story of Abraham, Yahweh became the main god of worship, and regarded as the Greater of all other GOD’s of his time:

Exodus 18:11 “Now I know that Yahweh is Greater than All other GODS”

     Powerful position yahweh will have come to be in, but despite this mighty position among the gods, the cult of Yahweh almost became extinct in around 597 – 538 BC after he was officially established as the god of Judah. Traditionally that meant the possibility of your god getting usurped and replaced with another by the conquering party as this was in the time period in which the Hebrews were exiled to Babylon when their Temple was destroyed. The GODs of this era were associated with territories of land, and after their defeat you get Yahwists wondering how they can continue to sing the song of Yahweh when exiled in a foreign land:

Psalm 137:4 “How can we sing the song of Yahweh when in a foreign land?”

     It becomes a question of survival, and they either adapt or get removed like many before them. Thus If it were not for The Second Isaiah, the cult of Yahweh would have gone extinct, and Christianity would either not exist or look very different today. This is the point where Monotheism really begins to hold and take root and favor the survival of the cult of Yahweh:

Isaiah 44:6 “I am the first and I am the last. Besides me, there is no GOD”

     So in understanding the above, we come to find that all the different names for GOD are claimed by Yahwists, and that they are, according to them,  all the same GOD. So In Exodus 6:2-3, as noted earlier,  states that Yahweh and El Shaddai as being the same deity. And for credulity, they have Yahweh himself proclaim that he is. After all, who was going to question Yahweh?:

Exodus 6:2 2 God also said to Moses, “I am the LORD.
Exodus 6:3 3 I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob as God Almighty,[a] but by my name the LORD I did not make myself fully known to them. (Hebrew El-Shaddai)

     This is where perhaps monotheism solidifies and parts away from it’s polytheistic roots, smashing all the supposed false Idols including EL’s wife Asherah to which Yahweh was once associated to after being equated to “EL”. Asherah by the evidence was among the toughest ones for the monotheist movement to shake off. And to do that, all they thought they needed was the common male dominance mentality of the Kenites to where women are seen as weak and should obey the will of man. And thus at some point making Asherah a false idol, an idol that never really went away as we can see with Isis and the virgin Mary.  So what all this means is that Judaism and Christianity were born from a monotheistic cult movement to which came from their polytheistic roots. These Yahwists are those who likely worshiped a Volcano fire god of war as the most powerful of all GODs, and as symbol of mans Power.  And it’s no wonder why they had worshiped a Volcano as a GOD of the armies. All of this above gives a foundation for further evaluation, so looking at this in Exodus, the Deuteronomy, Psalms, and many others, I  take a deeper stare into the flame wondering if it shall speak with the thundering voice of GOD:

/ Chapter 3: –>


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