Chapter 1: Wisdom In The Question
Chapter 2: God Of The Moon Mountain
Chapter 3: Exodus & The Voice Of God
Chapter 4: The Deuteronomy
Chapter 5: Plagues Of Egypt And The Nile Delta
Chapter 6: The Psalms
Chapter 7: Fire, Torment, And Human Sacrifice
— Chapter 3 —
Exodus & The Voice Of God
Some of the more damning evidence for Freud’s hypothesis is the description of the pillar of cloud by day and fire by night with thundering and lightning upon a burning shaking mountain in which you dare not touch as you surely would have been put to death. This is pretty much explicit in the Exodus narrative noted below. But in following the Imagery we will also come to know the voice of GOD:
As we can see, here is a pretty good description of a Volcano. Others have tried to suggest otherwise, or suggest it describes a war tactic of using torches to obscure one’s movements. The major problem with this argument is that it does not fit the narrative to which is about the distant mountain rather than a large band of Israelites trying to escape into the promise land. Especially when any such effort would have been in futility since it would have been impossible to cover up the trail of such a large group led by Moses. This distant mountain was a pillar of fire by night and a pillar of smoke by day. This description essentially why Exodus is typically the section of the Bible in which many people often tend to infer that Yahweh could have been a volcano god. I agreeably find Exodus of particular interest by referencing Exodus 20:18. I find Exodus 20 interesting in that there is many facets to which really out-line why scholars attribute Mt. Sinai as a volcanic mountain of god. In particular, paying close attention to “Noise of the Trumpet”, and the “Thunderings and Lightnings” provides ample evidence Mt. Sinai is of volcanic origin:
The interesting part of the description is not necessarily the imagery of smoke and flashing lightning, it is rather the noise of the trumpet according to the Cambridge University Scientist Calin Humphrey. Hence we can establish how they often referred to those thunderous noises like the sound of trumpets coming from the mountains as being considered the “Voice of GOD”. A particular of interest that can be further demonstrated in the following verse in Job 37, and how that similarly relates to Moses’s description of GOD, or how GOD spoke to him:
And as Colin Humphrey of the Cambridge University has pointed out, scholars are not scientists and that these details in anthropology and archaeology, or in religious scripture have gotten rather overlooked if not ignored entirely. This is where science can play a larger role in determining what the context of such scripture means. Calin was also noted in Chapter 2 regarding Mt Sinai, And I thus reference him here once more on the sound of the trumpet:
Furthermore, he’s not the only one that has realized the importance of the sounds Earth makes when it comes to religious texts, cultures, and oral traditions. Hence as such contention is duly noted in the Journal of Anthropological Archaeology regarding Mesoamerica and the Mayan culture:
Such Primitive cultures, as brilliant as they were, essentially had no modern scientific understanding of these sounds or the natural phenomenon associated to them. They had thus Anthropomorphized the sounds in which their world around them made. It is a fair argument to say sound descriptions within ancient scriptures, literature, and oral traditions should be considered and applied in modern Anthropology in concerns to religions and cultures of the Near East and Mesopotamia. As doing otherwise severely limits our understanding of these cultures.
Though despite the evidence above, there is still a great amount of dispute over the Exodus narrative to which ranges from there is no volcano in the Sinai Peninsula, no evidence of volcanic turmoil in Egypt, or even as far as to dispute it couldn’t be so simply because the word volcano is not present in the bible. I find the last dispute a bit irrelevant, however, and so due to the fact that the term is not contemporary to the time in which Exodus was written. As in there isn’t even Hebrew term for “volcano”, and nor did the term exist. So on the surface, that dispute seems like a good point, but in reality, it is rather not since the term originates from the archaic period of the kings of Rome, and the Roman mythology surrounding Vulcan, the god of fire:
The term “Volcano” is therefore expected not to be in the Bible. However, the Hebrew term “mountain” is, and that is more than sufficient when the descriptions are apparently describing an erupting volcano within the limits of the languages spoken at the time. So I am inclined to ignore this grievance to address the more notable dispute in how there is supposedly no such evidence of volcanic destruction in Egypt as well as that there are no volcanoes in Egypt or the Sinai Peninsula. Well despite some of those being true, they are flawed arguments that ignore the geological evidence of a cataclysmic volcanic event, what evidence we do have of the impact The Thera eruption had on Egypt, The Exodus narrative, and the fact that the Sinai Peninsula did not exist under that name during these time periods. The Peninsula in particular here was called Mafkat or Country of Turquoise:
Mafkat was inferred at the Country of Turquoise by the Egyptians due to the Turquoise mines in which provided much of the Turquoise for their jewelry. There is no indication of the existence of Sinai at the time in which Exodus had been written, and thus the original location of Sinai is unknown. The argument regarding the Sinai Peninsula is either disingenuous, discredited or simply unfounded with any sort of historicity to the subject just to begin with here. This same problem deals with the current Mt Sinai as it too was named after the biblical Mt Sinai. Thus again the location of Mt Sinai is a matter of question, and may even be a fictional place card to represent volcanic mountains and events in the region throughout the history and evolution of Mesopotamian Pagan cultures. This, of course, being in that we already know that Exodus in itself is regarded by mainstream archaeology, Egyptology, and anthropology as mythical. The best case scenario for the historicity is, therefore, a mythical telling and expression of real events such as the Thera eruption, or the eviction of the Hyksos from Egypt in which would then had to have been greatly exaggerated. Hence a work of fiction based on true events or natural phenomenon as it has been done since the dawn of written language. Thus with that in mind, I would argue there is evidence of such real-world events that likely had inspired the largely fictional writing of Exodus, and perhaps even led to the eviction of the Hyksos from the lands of Egypt. This evidence includes Exodus earliest writings being as early as 1523-15570 BC:
This of course is consistent with the archaeological evidence concerning that of the Thera Eruption and the destruction of ancient Egyptian Cities.
And as noted, this is also consistent with Minoan Eruption:
This Eruption to which is considered the likely trigger to the downfall of the Bronze Age. An event that led to the likely fall of Babylon and put the region into economic chaos to which had a large impact on the ruling Hyksos in Egypt according to the paper linked.
Furthermore, we can reference the Lecture on Babylon and Egyptian trade with the Minoans (http://www2.uncp.edu/home/rwb/lecture_ancient_civ.htm). The fall of the Minoan civilization also meant the economic stability of the Hyksos rule in which was compounded in a battle for resources as the Hittites attacked the regions largest grain stores of Babylon. As in the economic stability of Babylon was in disorder, and this would have been devastating to the Hyksos. Their eviction was imminent, and for the Minoans, it was a civilization-ending event that clearly had a very drastic impact on the region, cultures, oral traditions, beliefs, theology, and regional political climates. The Hyksos had lost their primary source of support. Furthermore, note the following contention concerning the aftermath of the Thera eruption and the fall of the Hyksos:
The metaphorical argument appears to be highly unlikely, and appears to be apologetic rather than based on sound Anthropological or Archaeological evidence. It’s also refuted in this paper to which suggests there is no evidence of any such war causing such damage, or such having taken place due to war:
It’s thus seen as more to do with a withdrawal from Egypt that was ultimately caused by this cataclysmic event than a full out war in Egypt. Giving the evidence, we can rule out any use of a metaphor as noted. The further collapse of the Bronze age was likely compounded by other more recent volcanic activity like the eruption of Krakatoa to which would have further impacted the climate change and impacted the collapse of the Canaanite civilization. Though despite the impacts cited, one of the more interesting things to note about the Thera eruption is that it would have been visible from as far East as the Nile Delta, and even as far as Israel to which is well illustrated in “Egyptian Origin of the Book of Revelation P.274 – 280“:
Where Mt. Thera sits is the Island chain just off to the left of Cyprus in the above map of Levant according to Google maps. And depending on your vantage point in the Sinai desert, you can range from a few feet to more than 2,000 ft above sea level, thus giving you a less obstructed view. The point, however, is that the eruption would clearly have been seen from the Levant Region, and would not have been some small localized event. Mt. Thera had a very wide regional impact spanning from the triggering of the downfall of the Bronze age, the eviction of Hyksos from Egypt, the plagues of Egypt, and even to the observed impacts on the Nile Delta. Evidence of such has been published in Nature where volcanic shards from Santorini were discovered in Nile Delta.:
These impacts are much the foundation of the Exodus narrative in which I have found to be consistent to the aftermath of volcanic eruptions to where the ten plagues of Egypt and the imagery of the Nile Delta are yet equally important key pieces of evidence I will go over in chapter 5 as this cataclysmic event has seemed to traumatize and strike fear in what can best be described as shock and awe into the heart of the cultural mindset in and around the Mediterranean.
And this clearly seems present in the Old and New Testament and thus adding further empirical support to our hypothesis in question. But let’s continue on and get more into the bible and it’s the description of GOD. In Chapter 4, we will examine face to face this described jealous talking, all-consuming, and smoking mountain of fire in the Deuteronomy: