Chapter 1: Wisdom In The Question
Chapter 2: God Of The Moon Mountain
Chapter 3: Exodus & The Voice Of God
Chapter 4: The Deuteronomy
Chapter 5: Plagues Of Egypt And The Nile Delta
Chapter 6: The Psalms
Chapter 7: Fire, Torment, And Human Sacrifice
— Chapter 6 —
From ashes of the fire to the dust! People love to quote Exodus or the Deuteronomy, but it’s the Psalms that often gets largely overlooked in concerns to our hypothesis. As we know, The Psalms are considered to be the hymns of Yahweh. I find this perhaps more important than many of the other chapters of the Bible just because the hymns are very direct and personal in describing him. Though this is debatable as they may actually be the hymns of the Canaanite godhead El. However, the importance here is what is being described in hymns of the Psalms. “For the Lord is thy ROCK!” A phrase commonly used in describing El, El Shaddai, and Yawheh. This phrase delves deep into how rocks play a deep and connecting role within the Abrahamic Religions. What better source of pumice ejecta than the Psalms?:
The LORD is my rock, my fortress and my deliverer; my God is my rock, in whom I take refuge. He is my shield and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold.
Psalms 18:2 seems to be both metaphorical and anthropomorphic, and I would even go as far as to say that this may very well be expected in regards to such worship of the Gods of the mountains. Psalms 18 goes on further to describe God as not only the spirit of the mountain but as the burning mountain itself. An exceptional example of this anthropomorphism is, of course, apparent in Psalms 18:6 -15 where the God of the mountain is called upon by David to deliver him from his enemies:
6 In my distress I called to the Lord; I cried to my God for help. From his temple he heard my voice; my cry came before him, into his ears. 7 The earth trembled and quaked, and the foundations of the mountains shook; they trembled because he was angry. 8 Smoke rose from his nostrils; consuming fire came from his mouth, burning coals blazed out of it. 9 He parted the heavens and came down; dark clouds were under his feet. 10 He mounted the cherubim and flew; he soared on the wings of the wind. 11 He made darkness his covering, his canopy around him— the dark rain clouds of the sky. 10 Out of the brightness of his presence clouds advanced, with hailstones and bolts of lightning. 13 The Lord thundered from heaven; the voice of the Most High resounded. 14 He shot his arrows and scattered [the enemies], great bolts of lightning and routed them. 15 The valleys of the sea were exposed and the foundations of the earth laid bare at your rebuke, O Lord, at the blast of breath from your nostrils.”
This imagery appears to be volcanic in nature, and as the Rock of Israel, I would even go so far as to say that this even gives a deeper understanding to other verses in the bible, verses such as Matthew 16 where it is this rock in which the church will be built upon:
And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it.
This mountain of GOD, the Rock of Israel can even be back referenced in Genesis 49:24-25 to which also brings us back to “GOD of your Father” regarding El Shaddai, and the Moon GOD Sin I had previously mentioned regarding the GOD of Abraham:
24 But his bow remained steady, his strong arms stayedk limber, because of the hand of the Mighty One of Jacob, because of the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel, 25 because of your father’s God, who helps you
Thus after you really read Psalm, as I outlined, the context of such hymns as these and the following ought to be taken for consideration to the Volcano God hypothesis:
On the wicked he will rain fiery coals and burning sulfur; a scorching wind will be their lot..
1 The Mighty One, God, the Lord, speaks and summons the earth from the rising of the sun to where it sets. 2 From Zion, perfect in beauty, God shines forth. 3 Our God comes and will not be silent; a fire devours before him, and around him a tempest rages. 4 He summons the heavens above, and the earth, that he may judge his people: 5 “Gather to me this consecrated people, who made a covenant with me by sacrifice.
1The Lord reigns, let the earth be glad; let the distant shores rejoice. 2 Clouds and thick darkness surround him; righteousness and justice are the foundation of his throne. 3 Fire goes before him and consumes his foes on every side. 4 His lightning lights up the world; the earth sees and trembles. 5 The mountains melt like wax before the Lord, before the Lord of all the earth. 6 The heavens proclaim his righteousness, and all the peoples see his glory. 7 All who worship images are put to shame, those who boast in idols— worship him, all you gods! 8 Zion hears and rejoices and the villages of Judah are glad because of your judgments, O Lord. 9 For you, O Lord, are the Most High over all the earth; you are exalted far above all gods. 10 Let those who love the Lord hate evil, for he guards the lives of his faithful ones and delivers them from the hand of the wicked. 11 Light is shed upon the righteous and joy on the upright in heart. 12 Rejoice in the Lord, you who are righteous, and praise his holy name.
The Lord reigns, let the nations tremble; he sits enthroned between the cherubim, let the earth shake. 2 Great is the Lord in Zion; he is exalted over all the nations. 3 Let them praise your great and awesome name—he is holy. 4 The King is mighty, he loves justice—you have established equity; in Jacob you have done what is just and right. 5 Exalt the Lord our God and worship at his footstool; he is holy. 6 Moses and Aaron were among his priests, Samuel was among those who called on his name; they called on the Lord and he answered them. 7 He spoke to them from the pillar of cloud; they kept his statutes and the decrees he gave them. 8 O Lord our God, you answered them; you were to Israel a forgiving God, though you punished their misdeeds. 9 Exalt the Lord our God and worship at his holy mountain, for the Lord our God is holy.”
The evidence appears to be quite clear, and I find it hard to establish any other natural phenomenon in which can meet all the descriptions such as the Mountains in the presences of the Lord melting like wax. The above samples from Psalms are just a few among many as the Psalms is literally erupting with such imagery throughout. I would say in my opinion that the evidence thus far is sufficient to establish Yahweh as a Mountain Volcano God as suggested by Freud with the exception that Yahwism seems to have usurped these epithets into Yahweh’s persona, and thus leaving his likely origin as one of the Son’s of EL in obscurity. I am only left here to ask what further evidence do we really need to consider? I feel it is not necessary to continue to establish Sigmund Freud’s claim as reasonably credible, But I also don’t really see why I shouldn’t continue exploring the subject for perhaps your interest, or that of my own curiosity. So in further inquiry, I asked myself if Perhaps the threat of torture, torment, and flaming brimstone, as well as human sacrifices as burnt offerings would be things in which could or would be consistent with this hypothesis. Thus for this, I set out in the final Chapter of this article by outlining fire, torment, and human sacrifice along with my concluding thoughts on this brief overview of Freud’s claim:
<– Chapter 5 / Chapters 7 –>